How Can the Patient Purify, Pray, Fast, & Perform Hajj?

Since 2012-11-20

Allah Almighty has said that He {has not laid upon you in religion any hardship} [Surat Al-Hajj 22:78]

How Can the Patient Purify, Pray, Fast, and Perform Hajj (Pilgrimage)?

 
 
In the name of Allah the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
 
All the praises and thanks be to Allâh, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists). Prayers and peace of Allah be upon His faithful Messenger; and upon all his family and pure companions.
 
 
The purification of the patient
 
Allah (Glorified and Exalted) has legalized purification for each prayer. Purifying the body and removing impurity from the body, cloths and the praying place are two conditions of the validity of prayers. If a Muslim wants to pray, he must perform the known ablution from the minor impurity (urinating, letting out gas...) or perform total ablution for major ritual impurity. Before performing the ablution, the one who urinates or excretes has to clean the two natural orifices with water or stones to fulfill purification and cleanness.
 
1- Cleaning the two natural orifices with water for everything that comes out from the two natural orifices such as urination and excretion.
 
2- There is no cleaning for the two natural orifices because of sleeping or breaking wind; however, there is ablution; as cleaning the two natural orifices by water is legalized to remove impurity, which is not found here.
 
3- Istigmar (cleaning the two natural orifices is by stones) is performed by using stones or what replaces them.
 
4- Istigmar must be performed by using three pure stones, as it is proven about the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) that he said, "Whoever cleans the two natural orifices with stones, he is to use odd ones". [Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim]
 
«ومن استجمر فليوتر» متفق عليه
 
5- It is not permissible to clean the two natural orifices using dung, bones, food, and anything that is of honour.
 
6- It is better to clean the two natural orifices by stones and the alike such as tissues and to follow that with water.
 
7- A man can choose between cleaning by water or by stones and the alike. If he wants to choose only one, so water is better, as it is more intensive in cleaning.
 
8- It is not permissible for the person to perform Istijmar with the right hand as the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said, "None of you should hold his male organ with his right hand while urinating, or wipe himself with his right hand in privy" [Narrated by Muslim: 267].
 
«لا يمسكن أحدكم ذكره بيمينه وهو يبول، ولا يتمسح من الخلاء بيمينه» رواه مسلم
 
However, if there is some disease in his left hand, there is no objection to using his right hand.
 
Allah Glorified and Exalted has lightened for the people of excuses their acts of worship according to their excuses so that they would be able to worship Him, the Almighty, without difficulty.
 
Allah Almighty has said that He {has not laid upon you in religion any hardship} [Surat Al-Hajj 22:78]
 
{وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ} الحج: 78
 
Transliteration: wama jaAAala AAalaykum fee alddeeni min harajin
 
He has also said, {Allâh intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.} [Surat Al-Baqarah 2:185]
 
 {يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ} البقرة: 185
 
Transliteration: yureedu Allahu bikumu alyusra wala yureedu bikumu alAAusra
 
and, {So keep your duty to Allâh and fear Him as much as you can;} [Surat At-Taghâbun 64:16].
 
{فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ} التغابن: 16
 
Transliteration: Faittaqoo Allaha ma istataAAtum
 
The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said, "And if I order you to do something, then do of it as much as you can" [Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim].
 
«وإذا أمرتكم بأمر فأتوا منه ما استطعتم» متفق عليه
 
If a patient cannot purify himself by water by performing ablution from the minor impurity or having a bath from the major ritual impurity due to his incapability or fear from illness to increase or the delaying of recovery, he can purify himself by dust. Dust ablution is performed by hitting the pure dust one time by his hands and then wipe over his face by the inside of his fingers and the palm of his hands by the other palm of his hands as Allah Almighty has said, {O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salât (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janâba (i.e. after a sexual discharge), purify yourselves (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey, or any of you comes after answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse), and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands} [Surat Al-Mâ'idah 5:6].
 
{وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ مَرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ مِنْهُ} المائدة: 6
 
Transliteration: wain kuntum marda aw AAala safarin aw jaa ahadun minkum mina alghaiti aw lamastumu alnnisaa falam tajidoo maan fatayammamoo saAAeedan tayyiban faimsahoo biwujoohikum waaydeekum minhu
 
 The one who is unable to use water takes the same ruling of the one who does not find water, according to the Words of Allah, {So keep your duty to Allâh and fear Him as much as you can;} [Surat At-Taghâbun 64: 16].
 
{فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ} التغابن:16
 
Transliteration: Faittaqoo Allaha ma istataAAtum
 
Moreover, the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said to 'Ammar ibn Yasser, "It was enough for you to do that; he stroke the ground with his hands and then blew (the dust) from his hands and then wiped his face and palms". [Reported by Muslim: 368]
 
«إنَّما كان يكفيك أن تقول هكذا وضرب بيديه إلى الأرض فنفض يديه فمسح وجهه وكفيه» رواه مسلم
 
The conditions of the patient:
 
1- If he is of light illness with which using water is not feared to cause harm or a dangerous illness, a delayed recovery, augmenting pain or a grievous thing such as headache, tooth pain or the like; or that he can use warm water with no harm, such an ill person is not allowed to perform dust ablution. The permissibility of dust ablution is to prevent harm, which is not found here; and as he finds water, so he has to use it in ablution.
 
2- If he is ill and is afraid to harm himself psychologically or physically; or he fears the occurrence of a disease that may harm the body or lose a benefit, he is then allowed to perform dust ablution, as Allah Almighty has said, {And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allâh is Most Merciful to you.} [Surat An-Nisâ' 4:29].
 
{وَلا تَقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا} النساء: 29
 
Transliteration: wala taqtuloo anfusakum inna Allaha kana bikum raheeman
 
3- If one is ill and cannot move and does not find anyone who can hand him water he is allowed to perform dust ablution.
 
4- If one suffers from injuries, ulcerated wounds, or a broken limb that will be harmed when using water, one is permitted to perform dust ablution because of the previously mentioned evidence. However, if he can wash the sound part of his body, he should do that and he performs dust ablution for the other parts.
 
5- The patient who cannot find water or dust, or he cannot find anyone to bring him any of them, he should pray in the state he is in. He is not permitted to delay the prayer beyond its fixed due time according to the words of Allah Almighty, {So keep your duty to Allâh and fear Him as much as you can;} [Surat At-Taghâbun 64:16].
 
{فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ} التغابن: 16
 
Transliteration: Faittaqoo Allaha ma istataAAtum
 
6- If the patient suffers from Enuresis (inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination) and is not cured from it, he should perform ablution for every single prayer. He should wash purify his body from the impurity and allocate a pure dress for prayers, if he could. If this is not possible, he is forgiven as Allah Almighty has said that He {has not laid upon you in religion any hardship.} [Surat Al-Hajj 22: 78]
 
{وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ} الحج: 78
 
Transliteration: wama jaAAala AAalaykum fee alddeeni min harajin
 
The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said, "And if I order you to do something, then do of it as much as you can" [Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim].
 
«وإذا أمرتكم بأمر فأتوا منه ما استطعتم» متفق عليه
 
He should take precautions to prevent urine from spreading over his body and cloth, or his place of prayer. Dust ablution is annulled by whatever annuls water ablution. It is also annulled by the ability to use water and by the availability of water after being nonexistent.
 
 
How can a patient perform prayers?
 
1- A patient must stand while praying. He must stand even with bending or leaning to a wall a stick he needs to support him.
 
2- If he cannot stand while praying, he prays while sitting in whatever state that suits his conditions.
 
3- If he cannot sit while praying, he prays on his side while he is directed to the qibla. The right side is better. If he cannot be directed to the qibla, he prays whatever his direction is. His prayer is right. He is not to repeat it.
 
4- If he cannot pray on his side, he prays as lying down with his legs directed to the qibla. It is better to raise his head a bit to be directed to the qibla. If he cannot direct his legs to the qibla, he prays in his status. He is not to repeat the prayer.
 
5- A patient must kneel and prostrate himself in his praying. If he cannot, he nods his head for them. Prostrating is to be lower than kneeling. If he can kneel without prostrating himself, he is then to kneel upon kneeling and nod his head upon prostration. If he can prostrate himself without kneeling, he is to prostrate himself upon prostration and nod his head upon kneeling.
 
6- If he cannot nod his head either in kneeling or in prostration, he is to indicate by his eyes. He is to close his eyes a bit during kneeling and close them more for prostration. Indicating by a finger, as done by some people, is not right. I do not know a reference for it in the Quran, Sunnah or the opinions of the scholars.
 
7- If he cannot either nod his head or indicate by his eyes, he is to pray by his heart. He is to say takbir (Allah is the Greatest), recite by moving his tongue. He intends to kneel, to stand, and to sit by his heart. Indeed, each person is rewarded according to his intention.
 
8- Whenever a patient becomes able to do something which he was not able to do during prayer, such as standing, sitting, kneeling, prostrating, or nodding, he is to do that and continues his prayer.
 
9- A patient has to pray each prayer at its fixed due time and performs whatever he is able to do in prayer. If it is difficult to pray each prayer in time, he can combine between the noon and afternoon prayers and between the sunset and evening prayers either by advanced combination by advancing the afternoon prayer to the noon pray and the evening prayer to the sunset prayer or delayed combination by delaying the noon prayer to the afternoon prayer and the sunset prayer to the evening prayer, whichever is easier for him. The dawn prayer, however, is not combined either to the prayer previous or after it.
 
10- If a patient or any other one sleeps or forgets a prayer, he has to pray it upon awaking up or remembering it. He is not allowed to wait until the time of the same prayer comes to pray it. The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) has said, "If one of you sleeps or forgets a prayer, he is to pray it when he remembers it. Allah says, {and perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât) for My Remembrance.} [Surat Tâha 20:14]" [Reported by Muslim 684].
 
«إذا رقد أحدكم عن الصَّلاة أو غفل عنها فليصلها إذا ذكرها فإنَّ الله يقول: {وَأَقِمِ الصَّلاةَ لِذِكْرِي} طه: 14» رواه مسلم
 
11- By any means, it is not permissible to leave a prayer. A person of age must observe prayers while he is ill at the same level as he observes it while he is healthy. He is not permitted to leave an obligatory prayer until its time passes even if he is ill as long as his mind is sound. He has to pray it during its fixed due time to the best of his ability. If he deserts it purposely while he is wise, of age and able to do it even by nodding, he is then a sinner. A number of scholars say that he is infidel by that. The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) has said, "The pledge between us and them is prayer, so, whosoever leaves it has rejected faith" [Reported an-Nasâ'i 462, ibn Majah 891, and at-Tirmidhi 2621. It is authenticated by al-Albani].
 
«العهد الَّذي بيننا وبينهم الصَّلاة فمن تركها فقد كفر» رواه النسائي والترمذي وابن ماجه وصححه الألباني
 
The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) has also said, "The head of matter is Islam, its pillar is prayer and the top of its hump is jihad." [Reported by at-Tirmidhi: 2616 and authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«رأس الأمر الإسلام، وعموده الصَّلاة، وذروة سنامه الجهاد» رواه الترمذي وصححه الألباني
 
12- If it is difficult to pray each prayer in its fixed due time, he can combine between the noon and afternoon prayers and between the sunset and evening prayers. This can be done either by advanced combination by advancing the afternoon prayer to the noon pray and the evening prayer to the sunset prayer or delayed combination by delaying the noon prayer to the afternoon prayer and the sunset prayer to the evening prayer, whichever is easier for him. The dawn prayer, however, is not combined either to the prayer previous or after it.
 
13- If a patient travels abroad to be treated in another country, he is to shorten the four-prayer-unit- prayers. He is to pray the noon, afternoon, and evening prayers as two prayer units until he returns to his country, whether such staying is long or short.
 
 
The fasting of a patient
 
Allah Almighty has said, {and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allâh intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.} [Surat Al-Baqarah 2:185]
 
{وَمَنْ كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ} البقرة: 185
 
Transliteration: waman kana mareedan aw AAala safarin faAAiddatun min ayyamin okhara yureedu Allahu bikumu alyusra wala yureedu bikumu alAAusra
 
 
The patient is of two types:
 
1- The one whose illness is constant and incessant with no hope of recovery such as cancer, he is not obliged to fast. Such patient is not in state that may enable him to observe fasting. Nevertheless, should feed one person for each day of fasting that he did not observe.
 
2- The one whose illness is temporary such as fever and the like, it has three types:
 
A. when fasting is not hard or harmful for him, he should observe fasting, as he has no excuse (for not fasting).
 
B. when fasting is hard but not harmful for him, it is undesirable for him to fast. Fasting in such case is refraining from the permit that Allah Almighty has given, as well as inflicting hardship upon himself.
 
C. when fasting is harmful, he is prohibited from fasting as this brings about self-harm while Allah Almighty has said, {And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allâh is Most Merciful to you.} [Surat An-Nisâ' 4:29]
 
{وَلا تَقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا} النساء: 29
 
Transliteration: wala taqtuloo anfusakum inna Allaha kana bikum raheeman
 
He has also said, {do not throw yourselves into destruction} [Surat Al-Baqarah 2:195]
 
{وَلا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ} البقرة: 195
 
Transliteration: wala tulqoo biaydeekum ila alttahlukati                                 
 
The harm afflicted by fasting is known; it is either felt by the patient himself or a trustworthy doctor tells him. The patient must make up for the days he missed fasting when he recovers. If he dies before recovering, making up for these days is alleviated from him. The obligation is to fast the same number (of the days he missed fasting) on other days, which he did not achieve (by his death).
 
 
Some breakers of fasting
 
The following are some breakers of fasting that every patient must know.
 
1- Blood transfusion
 
2- The nutrient injection, which suffice for eating and drinking
 
3- Cupping
 
4- What takes the rulings of cupping such as phlebotomy, and drawing blood for donation.
 
5- Deliberate vomiting, which is letting out all the content of the stomach through the mouth
 
 
Things that do not break the fast
 
The following are some of the things that do not break the fast that every patient must know.
 
1- Non-nutrient injections
 
2- Bleeding because of epistaxis (nose bleeding), coughing, hemorrhoids, pulling out of tooth, a wound or taking blood for tests
 
3- Unintentional vomiting
 
4- Putting eye drops or kohl in the eye even if you find their taste in the throat, as well using eardrops and putting medicine on wounds
 
5- Using of gurgling provided that the fluid does not enter the throat and that he does so only if the need arises.
 
6- Swallowing the saliva, Sheikh Abdul-Aziz ibn Baz, may Allah have mercy on him, said, "The saliva does not break the fast. There is nothing wrong in swallowing or spitting it, as it does not harm the fast. As for mucus, one must spit it; it is not to be swallowed."
 
7- Using toothpaste with precaution not to swallow it
 
8- Using the siwak (Arak toothbrush) during the day
 
9- Using suppositories
 
10- Using sprayer for dyspnea (breathlessness)
 
11- Using facial, hand and body creams.
 
 
The pilgrimage of the patient
 
Sheikh Mohamed ibn 'Uthaymîn, may Allah have mercy on him, said,
Firstly, if he suffers from a hopeless illness, he must deputize someone, if he is financially able to afford it, to perform hajj. The evidence is the Hadith of the woman from the tribe of Khth'am. She said, "O Messenger of Allah, Allah's making the hajj obligatory finds my father a very old man, unable to stay firm on his riding-beast. Can I do hajj for him?" He said, "Yes." The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) has agreed to her action; he did not say, "Your father is not obliged to perform hajj." Consequently, we say, "The one who is financially able but suffers from a permanent hopeless health inability (illness, disability…), he should deputize someone to perform hajj or 'umrah for him. He should bear all the financial expenses of that person."
 
Secondly, if there is hope for recovery, the patient must wait until he is cured. After that, he performs hajj himself. If he is able to perform the hajj but with intolerable hardship, then he takes the same ruling as the completely unable. If the hardship is tolerable but it is more convenient for him to stay, this does not alleviate the obligation hajj.
 
Thirdly, if he gets ill while performing hajj and that he has previously said, "but if I am confined by a confiner, then the dissolution of my consecration is where I am confined", then he cancels his consecration and there is no sin in that.
 
If he had not said this statement: if his illness is usually cured in a short time, he does not dissolute his consecration. He should wait till he is cured and completes the rites, unless waiting makes him miss the rites. If he gets sick on the Day of Arafat and is not able to accomplish the rite, he misses the hajj and should dissolute his consecration and performs 'Umrah. However, if his illness is not normally cured in a short time and he fears that he will lose his companions, then he does not dissolute consecration. He remains in consecration till he becomes able to complete the rites.
 
In another opinion, he dissolute his consecration and offers a sacrificial animal, where he is prevented, as an expiation. This is the right opinion according to the generalization of the words of Allah Almighty, {But if you are prevented (from completing them), sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e. a sheep, a cow, or a camel) such as you can afford,} [Surat Al-Baqarah 2:196]
 
{فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ} البقرة: 196
 
Transliteration: fama istaysara mina alhadyi
 
Allah has not confined the prevention by anything, which implies generalization.
 
Prayers and peace of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad; and upon all his family and companions.
 
 
Prepared by the scientific section in Imam Az-Zahabi Library
 
 
 

 

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