Fatwas for Women during Hajj

Since 2012-11-29

Following are some of the important fatwas needed by each pilgrim, man or woman, to perform pilgrimage with insight into his religion. We have collected and selected them from the fatwas of His Eminence Sheikh Abdul Aziz Ibn Baz, may Allah have mercy on him.

Religious Opinions for women during Pilgrimage

 
All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists), and peace and blessings of Allah be upon the Master of Messengers; our Prophet Muhammad.
 
Following are some of the important fatwas needed by each pilgrim, man or woman, to perform pilgrimage with insight into his religion. We have collected and selected them from the fatwas of His Eminence Sheikh Abdul Aziz Ibn Baz, may Allah have mercy on him, to prevail its benefit and to be a clear guide for those who have not been able to study the jurisprudence of pilgrimage.
 
We invoke Allah to reward each one who reads or contributes to distributing them.
 
 
Consecration in clothes for women
 
Question: Is it allowed for a woman to consecrate in any garment she wishes to wear?
 
Answer: Yes, she can consecrate in any garments she wishes. She has no specific garments for consecration as some of the masses may think. It is better, however, to consecrate in a non-stylish and non-attractive garments as she intermixes with people. Garments, therefore, must not be attractive or stylish. They must be, rather, plain, with nothing tempting in them. If she consecrates in stylish garments, her consecration is valid, but she has left what is better.
 
As for men, it is better to consecrate in two white garments; a below-waist cloth and an upper-waist cloth (izâr and ridâ’). If a man consecrates in a non-white garment, there is nothing wrong in that. It is proved that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, wore a black turban – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him - Shortly, there is no mistake in consecrating a non-white garment.
 
 
A woman took off her consecration garments after consecrating for Umrah because of menstruation
 
Question: A woman consecrated for an Umrah then she got her menses. She took off her consecration garments, cancelled the Umrah and traveled. What is the religious ruling?
 
Answer: This woman is still in her consecration status. Taking off her consecration garments does not cancel her consecration. She has to return to Mecca and complete her performing of Umrah. She has no atonement for taking off her garments and returning to homeland if she is ignorant. If she is married, however, and has sexual intercourse with her husband before returning to perform the rites of Umrah, her performing of Umrah is then spoiled. She has, however, to perform the rites of Umrah, even if it is spoiled. She is to make up for it by another Umrah. She has, nevertheless, to offer expiation for this; which is one seventh of a camel or of a cow, or a head of sheep, a sheep of not less than six months or a goat of not less than one year. This is to be slaughtered in the Makkan sanctuary and to be distributed to the poor in the sanctuary; making up for the spoiling of her Umrah due to the sexual intercourse. A woman can consecrate in which garments she wishes; she has no specific garments for consecration as some of the masses may think. It is better, however, to consecrate in a non-stylish garments in order to avoid temptation. Allah knows better.
 
 
The ruling of undoing the woman’s plait during consecration
 
Question: is undoing the hair plaits of a woman during consecration prohibited, and is the use of henna on hands or legs prohibited during consecration?
 
Answer: there is nothing wrong in that. Undoing the hair plaits is not a problem when not purposing cutting the hair. Undoing the plaits for washing or the like reasons is also not prohibited. The prohibited is cutting the hair before relieving from consecration. As for undoing the plaits, washing the head or dying with henna or the like cause no harm; there is nothing prohibited in doing that. If she, however, dyes her hands or legs, she must cover them from people; she has to cover them with cloths or garments, because this is considered a temptation.
 
So what about mixing henna with something like perfume?
 
No, perfume is prohibited. Unmixed henna, however, is not prohibited. But hands must be covered. Hands and legs are to be covered during circumambulation and hastening and during being among men.
 
 
The ruling of falling of hair from the head
 
Question: What can a consecrated woman do if some of her hair falls unintentionally?
 
Answer: if some hairs drop from a male or female muhrim during ablution or washing, there is nothing wrong in that. The same applies for the beard or mustache of a man; or from his nails as long as this has happened unintentionally. Doing that intentionally, however, is prohibited. If some hairs drop unintentionally, these are considered dead and they drop during moving, so there is nothing wrong in that. Allah knows better.
 
Question: Can a woman in menses read the books of prayers (that contain invocations and supplications to Allah) on the day of Arafat though that they contain Quranic verses?
 
Answer: There is nothing wrong for a menstruating woman or a woman in childbed to read the written prayers during the rituals of pilgrimage. There is no sin to read the Quran as well; according to the right opinion. There is no authentic text that prevents a menstruating woman or a woman in childbed from reading the Quran. It is, however, mentioned especially for the ceremonially impure not to read the Quran in such a case; because of the Hadith narrated by Ali, may Allah be pleased with him and may He please him. As for a menstruating woman or a woman in childbed, there was a Hadith narrated by Ibn Umar (Neither a menstruating nor a ceremonially impure woman is to read anything from the Quran). But this is a weak Hadith as it is from the narration of Ismail Ibn Ayyash from Al-Hijazayn and he is weak in his narration from them.
 
But she is to read by heart without touching the Quran. As for the ceremonially impure, he is not to read the Quran neither by heart nor from a copy of the Quran until taking a purifying bath. The difference between them is in that the time of the ceremonial impurity is short so a man can take a purifying bath immediately after having the sexual intercourse with his wife. So its period is not long. The matter is in his hand; whenever he wishes to take a bath he can do that. If he is unable to reach water, he can perform sand ablution, pray and read from the Quran. As for a menstruating woman or a woman in childbed, the matter is not in their hands, but it is in the Hands of Allah Glorified and Exalted. Whenever she finishes her menstruation or puerperium she can take a purifying bath. Both menstruation and puerperium last for days. That is why it is allowed for them to read the Quran in order not to forget it, and that she would not lose the virtue of reading and to learn the religious rulings from the Book of Allah. So it is a fortiori then to read the books which contain prayers from the Hadiths, the Quranic verses and others. That is right and this is the most right saying of the scholars, may Allah have mercy them, in such matter.
 
 
The ruling on taking pills that delay menstruation
 
Question: Is it allowed for a woman to take pills that delay her monthly period until performing pilgrimage? Is there another solution?
 
Answer: There is nothing wrong for a woman to take pills to prevent menstruation during Ramadan to be able to fast with people; and during the days of pilgrimage to be able to circumambulate with people and that she would not be prevented from performing the rituals of pilgrimage. If there are things other than the pills, that prevent the monthly period, there is nothing wrong in that provided that they are not harmful and that they have no religious prohibits.
 
Question: How can a woman in menses pray the two prayer units of consecration? Is it allowed for a woman to recite the Quran secretly?
 
Answer:
A) - A woman in menses does not pray the two prayer units of consecration. She consecrates without praying. The two prayer units of consecration are a Sunnah for the majority of scholars. Some scholars do not prefer it, as there is nothing mentioned as specific for them. The majority of scholars prefers it as it was established from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, that Allah Exalted and Glorified has told him: “Pray in this blessed valley and assume Ihram for Hajj and ‘Umra together.” [Reported by Al-Bukhari in his Authentic Book of hadith]; i.e. in the Valley of Al-’Aqîq during the farewell pilgrimage.
 
«صل في هذا الوادي المبارك، وقل: عمرة في حجة» رواه البخاري
 
It is reported by the Companions that the Prophet had prayed and then consecrated, so the majority preferred to consecrate after an obligatory or an optional prayer. One is to perform ablution then to pray two praying units.
 
A menstruating woman or a woman in childbed does not pray, so she consecrates without praying and she is not to compensate for these two praying units.
 
B) - A woman in menses can recite the Quran according to the right argument if by heart, so this is unanimously agreed upon, but the disagreement is about whether to pronounce it or not.
 
Some scholars prohibit that and specify that the verdicts of menstruation and puerperium include the prevention of reading from the Quran and touching a copy of it. The right argument is that it is allowed for a woman to read the Quran by heart not from a copy, as there is no authenticated text that prevents that unlike the ceremonially impure, who is prevented until taking a purifying bath or perform sand ablution upon inability of washing as has been mentioned before.
 
Question: there is no doubt that the onrush is a pillar of pilgrimage. If a woman in menses leaves it for the lack of time and there is no time to wait for purity, so what is the ruling about that?
 
Answer: It is obligatory for her and for her guardian to wait until she becomes pure and to perform the onrush circumambulation; when the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was told that Safiyya (his wife) has got her period he said: “Is she going to detain us?” When he was informed that she had performed the onrush circumambulation, he said: “(Then you can) depart” [Al-Bukhari].
 
«أن صفية بنت حيي ، زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، حاضت في حجة الوداع، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: أحابستنا هي. فقلت: إنها قد أفاضت يا رسول الله وطافت بالبيت، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: فلتنفر» رواه البخاري
 
However, if she cannot wait and that she can return to perform circumambulation, she is allowed then to travel and return after being purified to perform circumambulation. If she cannot return or she is afraid that she may not be able to do that as the people in the countries far from Mecca such as Morocco, Indonesia and the like, she is allowed, according to the right argument, to wear a sanitary napkin and to circumambulate with the intention of pilgrimage. She is rewarded for that according to a group of scholars including the Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymyya and his student the scholar Ibn al-Qayyim, may Allah have mercy on them, and other scholars.
 
 
A woman has her menses during the onrush circumambulation but continued due to her shyness
 
Question: A woman traveled for pilgrimage and she got her period five days after her travel. When she reached the miqat (the specified place where she should consecrate for pilgrimage) she took a bath and consecrated before being purified from her period. When she reached Mecca, she stayed outside the sanctuary and did not perform any rites of pilgrimage and Umrah. She stayed two days in Mina then she became purified, took a bath and performed all the rites of Umrah while she is purified. Blood returned again during the pilgrimage onrush circumambulation. She was shy and completed the rites of pilgrimage. She did not tell her guardian until reaching their country. What is the ruling for that?
 
Answer: If this is the case, this woman has to go to Mecca and perform circumambulation seven rounds around the Old House for her pilgrimage as compensation on the circumambulation in which she got her period. After circumambulation, she is to pray two prayer units behind the Maqâm (place) of Ibrâhim (Abraham) (or the stone on which Ibrâhim (Abraham) stood while he was building the Ka’bah), or at any other place in the Sanctuary, accordingly her pilgrimage is complete. She has to slaughter a sacrificial animal in Mecca for its poor if she has a husband who has had sexual intercourse with her, as it is not allowed for a female muhrim to have sexual intercourse with her husband before the onrush circumambulation, throwing pebbles on the feast day and having her hair cut. She has also to hasten between Safa and Marwa if she did not do that if she performed umrah before the pilgrimage. If she combined between umrah and pilgrimage or performed pilgrimage only, she then does not need to hasten again if she has already hastened when performing the arrival circumambulation. She has to repent to Allah Almighty for her performing of circumambulation while she was in her menses, for leaving Mecca before circumambulation and for delaying circumambulation for this long time. We ask Allah to forgive her.
                                                                             
 
Who had her menses before performing the onrush circumambulation
 
Question: A woman performed pilgrimage with her husband. On the day of Arafat she was surprised by getting her period. It is known that she does all actions except performing circumambulation around the House. This is proven by the Hadith of Aisha. Is she to stay in Mecca until performing the onrush circumambulation, or what can she do? What should she do upon staying if her companions have left Mecca?
 
Answer: It is obligatory for a woman who gets her menses or who is in childbed before performing the onrush circumambulation to stay in Mecca until completing her pilgrimage; when the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was told that Safiyya (his wife) has got her period he said: “Is she going to detain us?” When he was informed that she had performed the onrush circumambulation, he said: “(Then you can) depart” [Agreed upon].
 
«أن صفية بنت حيي، زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، حاضت في حجة الوداع، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: أحابستنا هي. فقلت: إنها قد أفاضت يا رسول الله وطافت بالبيت، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: فلتنفر» متفق عليه
 
Some scholars said that if she cannot stay until purification, she can depart and return to Mecca to complete her pilgrimage, as Allah Almighty has said: {So keep your duty to Allah and fear Him as much as you can;} [Surat At-Taghâbun 64:16].
 
{فَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ...} التغابن: 16
 
Transliteration: Faittaqoo Allaha ma istataAAtum 
 
and the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, has said: “If I forbid you to do something, then keep away from it; and if I ordain you with an order, so perform from it whatever you can as long as you can” [Reported by Muslim].
 
«ما نهيتكم عنه فاجتنبوه. وما أمرتكم به فافعلوا منه ما استطعتم» رواه مسلم
 
If she is married, her husband is not allowed to have sexual intercourse with her until she returns to Mecca and completes her pilgrimage. As for the farewell circumambulation, it is cancelled for a menstruating or a woman in childbed as it is proven in the two authentic books that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, said: “The people were commanded (by the Prophet) to perform the last circumambulation round the House, but menstruating women were exempted “. May Allah grant us success.
«أمر الناس أن يكون آخر عهدهم بالبيت، إلا أنه خفف عن الحائض» متفق عليه
 
A woman had her menses before performing the onrush circumambulation
 
Question: If a woman gets her menses before the onrush circumambulation, so what is the ruling on that, keeping in mind that she performed the rest of rituals and her menses continued after the three days of tashreeq?
 
Answer: if a woman gets her period or becomes in childbed before performing the pilgrimage circumambulation, she then still has to perform circumambulation when she becomes purified. After purification, she takes a bath and performs the pilgrimage circumambulation even after days of pilgrimage, even if in the month of Muharram or Safar, upon possibility. There is no specific time. Some scholars argue that pilgrimage circumambulation is not permissible after the month of Dhul-Hijjah, but there is no evidence for this argument. The right argument is that it is allowed to be delayed. However, taking the initiative, with the ability, is better. If it is delayed after Dhul-Hijjah, it is rewarded and there is nothing wrong in that and one does not need to offer a sacrificial animal to make up for that. A menstruating woman and a woman in childbed are excused so there is nothing wrong with them, as they are powerless concerning this matter. After purification, they can perform circumambulation whether in Dhul-Hijjah or in Muharram.
 
 
Having sexual intercourse after performing the onrush circumambulation
 
Question: If a pilgrim performed the onrush circumambulation, can he then have sexual intercourse during the days of tashreeq?
 
Answer: If a pilgrim performed the onrush circumambulation, he is not allowed to have sexual intercourse unless he fulfills the other issues such as throwing the pebbles and having his hair shaved or clipped. Upon that, it is allowed to have sexual intercourse; otherwise, it is not allowed.
 
Circumambulation alone is not enough; throwing the pebbles is a must on the feast day; as well as having the hair shaved or clipped, circumambulation and hasting, if any, are also necessary. Accordingly, it is permissible to have sexual intercourse; otherwise, it is not allowed. If he does two out of three, such as throwing the pebbles and having the hair shaved or clipped, he is allowed then to wear [sewn] garments, use perfumes and the like except having sexual intercourse. Likewise, if he throws the pebbles and performs circumambulation or has his hair shaved, he is allowed to wear [sewn] garments, use perfumes, hunt, clip nails and the like. However, he is not allowed to have sexual intercourse unless he does all the three: throwing Alaqaba pebbles, having the hair shaved or clipped, performing the onrush circumambulation, and hastening, if there is any such as this who performs umrah before pilgrimage. After performing all that he is allowed to have sexual intercourse and Allah knows better.
 
 
Delegating in throwing pebbles
 
Question: Is delegating in throwing the pebbles allowed for this who is unable to throw due to sickness or the like?
 
Answer: Yes. Delegating in throwing pebbles for this who is not able to throw by himself/herself due to sickness, old age or junior age is permissible. In addition to these people it is also permissible to those who may fear for the safety of others such as a pregnant woman or this who has a child and cannot find someone who can protect her child until returning; as there are danger and harm upon her of crowding with people during throwing the pebbles. Scholars have drawn up such issue taking evidence with what is reported by Ahmed and Ibn Maja from Jabir who said: We performed pilgrimage with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and there were women and boys with us, we said the Talbiya instead of the boys and threw pebbles instead of them. It is evidence, as well, the words of Allah {So keep your duty to Allah and fear Him as much as you can;} [Surat At-Taghâbun 64:16].
 
{فَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ...} التغابن: 16
 
Transliteration: Faittaqoo Allaha ma istataAAtum 
 
There is another evidence in the saying of the Almighty: {and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allah),} [Surat Al-Baqarah 2:195].
 
{...وَلَا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ ...} البقرة: 195
 
Transliteration:wala tulqoo biaydeekum ila alttahlukati
 
And the saying of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him: “If I ordain you with an order, so perform from it whatever you can as long as you can” [Reported by Al-Bukhari].
 
«إذا أمرتكم بأمر فأتوا منه ما استطعتم» رواه البخاري
 
And his saying, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him: “Neither harm nor causing harm” [Authenticated by Al-Ablani].
 
«لا ضرر ولا ضرار» صححه الألباني
 
The ruling of women wearing socks during consecration
 
Question: In consecration, I wear black socks to cover my feet and I perform circumambulation wearing them. It is said that this cancels the consecration and I have to offer a sacrifice. I hope from your Eminence to inform me about the ruling of wearing them during consecration, circumambulation and praying. May Allah reward you with good.
 
Answer: This is a good deed for which you are praised, as it leads to covering your privacy and being away from the causes of temptation. This who informed you that you have to offer a sacrifice was mistaken. It is forbidden for a female muhrim to wear gloves in particular; but there is nothing wrong in wearing socks for a woman. It is, rather, necessary in circumambulation and praying. There is no problem to take care for that by wearing wide garments that cover the feet in circumambulation and praying. It is not necessary for the socks to be black. There is no problem in wearing other than the black color providing that they cover the feet. May Allah guide all to achieve the right. He is The Hearing, the Acceptor of Invocations.
 
 
If a women becomes in childbed on the eighth day and gets purified after ten days
 
Question: A woman started her childbed in the Day of Satisfaction. She fulfilled the pillars of pilgrimage except circumambulation and hastening. She noticed that she was initially purified after ten days. Is she to purify, take a bath and perform the remaining pillar; i.e. the pilgrimage circumambulation?
 
Answer: Yes, if she started her childbed on the eighth day, for example, she can perform pilgrimage and stand with people in Arafat and Muzdalifah. She can act as people by throwing the pebbles, having her hair cut, slaughtering a sacrificial animal and so on. There will still remain circumambulation and hasting which she is to delay until being purified. If she is purified after ten days, or less or more than that, she is to take a bath, pray, fast, circumambulate and hasten.
 
Childbed has no minimum time. She may be purified after ten days or less or more than that. Nevertheless, its maximum duration is forty days. If she completes forty days while the blood is still found, she considers herself as purified. She takes a bath, prays, and fasts and considers the rest blood – according to the right argument – as spoiled blood – with which she can pray, fast and have sexual intercourse with her husband. She is, however, to be cautious from it by a piece of cotton or the like. She is to perform ablution in each prayer. There is no problem to combine between the noon and afternoon prayers and between the sunset and the night prayers as the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, has recommended Khamna Bint Jahsh to do that.
 
The ruling of a woman who consecrated for Umrah while having her menses
 
Question: A woman is asking: she was in menses and her family wanted to go for the Umrah, so there would be no one to stay with her if she was delayed in going with them. She went for the Umrah with them and fulfilled all the terms of Umrah including circumambulation and hasting as if she had been purified as she was ignorant and shy to inform her guardian about that, especially as she is illiterate. What can she do?
 
Answer: If she consecrated for Umrah with them, she has then to repeat the circumambulation after taking a purifying bath and to have her hair re-clipped. As for hasting, she is rewarded according to the most right argument of scholars. If she repeats hasting, this is then better and more cautious. She has to repent to Allah Almighty from circumambulation and praying the two prayers of circumambulation while she was in menses.
 
If she is married, her husband is not permitted to have sexual intercourse with her until she completes her Umrah. If he has sexual intercourse with her before her fulfilling of the umrah, her umrah is then spoiled and she has to sacrifice with a head of sheep, a sheep of not less than six months or a goat of not less than one year to be slaughtered in Mecca for the poor. She has to completer her Umrah as we have mentioned before. She has to start a new Umrah from the miqat from where she started her first Umrah in place of her spoiled one. If she has only performed circumambulation and hasted with them as a courtesy and for shyness while she had not consecrated for the Umrah from the miqat, she has only to repent to Allah Almighty. Umrah and pilgrimage are not valid without consecration. Consecration is the intention for performing Umrah or pilgrimage or the intention of performing both of them.
 
 
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