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Chronology of the most important events in the prophetic biography from birth till death

Chronology of the most important events in the prophetic biography from birth till death

 
In the name of Allah the Most Gracious the Most Merciful
 
All praise is due to Allah alone, and prayers and peace of Allah be upon whom there is no prophet after him.
 
The life of the generous Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) passed by three phases:
 
The first phase: From his birth (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) till his mission.
 
The second phase: From his mission (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) till his immigration.
 
The third phase: From his immigration (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) till his death.
 
The first phase; from his birth till his mission
 
·         He (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) was born on Monday in the month of Rabee’ Al-`Awal in the year of the elephant (the year Abraha Al-Ashram raided on Makkah to destroy the Ka’bah with his elephants); so, the world rejoiced his birth.
 
·         Halima As-Saadiyya breastfed him, and he stayed in the desert with the tribe of Banu Sa’d about five years; then Halima sent him back to his mother.
 
·         His mother died when he was six years old; so Umm Ayman reared him and his grandfather (Abdul-Muttalib) became responsible for supporting him.
 
·         When he was eight years old, Abdel-Muttalib died; so, his paternal uncle (Abu Talib) became responsible for supporting him.
 
·         When he was nine years old (or twelve years old), he traveled the first journey to Ash-Sham (i.e. what is known now as Palestine, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon) with his paternal uncle Abu Talib, for commerce.
 
·         He (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) married Khadija, after his return from Ash-Sham, at the age of twenty five, and she was forty years old.
 
·         Alliance of Fudoul: It is an alliance for helping the victim of injustice and punishing the oppressor; the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) attended this alliance.
 
·         The prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) participated in rebuilding the Ka’ba after its burning; he was thirty five years old at this time.
 
·         He (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) was honored with the mission at the age of forty.
 
The second phase: From his mission (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) till his immigration.
 
Events of the first year after the mission
 
·         Revelation came to the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) at the cave of Hiraa` at the age of forty.
 
·         The start of revelation
 
·         Khadyja, Abu Bakr, Ali Ibn Abu Talib and Zaid Ibn Haritha embraced Islam.
 
·         Practicing Da’wa (i.e. call for Islam) in secret for three years. Some of the noble and slaves embrace Islam; such as ‘Uthman, Az-Zubair, Abdurrahman Ibn ‘Awf, Suhaib Ar-Rumy, ‘Ammar Ibn Yasser, Abu Dharr, Abdullah Ibn Masoud, ‘Uthman Ibn Math’oun, and others.
 
Events of the fifth year after the mission
 
·         The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) ordered his companions to immigrate to Ethiopia after they had been oppressed severely; then they returned after three months.
 
Events of the sixth year after the mission
 
·         Hamza and Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with them) embraced Islam.
 
Events of the seventh year after the mission
 
·         Laying siege to the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him), his paternal uncle (Abu Talib), Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul-Muttalib in the defile of Abu Talib.
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) ordered his companions to immigrate the second immigration to Ethiopia. Hence, about eighty three men immigrated along with eighteen women.
 
Events of the tenth year after the mission
 
·         The document of injustice and oppression had been nullified and the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him), along with his people, got out the defile after spending about three years in it.
 
·         Death of Khadyja (the wife of the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) and his paternal uncle, Abu Talib.
 
·         Harm upon the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) is intensified.
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) went to At-Ta`if to invite the tribes to Islam; he spent a month in it and faced grave harm.
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) returned to Makkah and became under the protection ofAl-Mut’am Ibn ‘Adi
 
·         He (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) exerted great effort in calling the tribes, inside and outside Makkah, to Islam.
 
Events of the eleventh year after the mission
 
·         He went the night journey to Jerusalem and ascension to the heavens (it is said that it happened in the tenth year; there is disagreement about the time).
 
·         Having the five daily prayers enjoined during the ascension to the heavens.
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) called six persons came from Al-Medina to Islam, and they accepted it; those were:
 
Abu `Umama (Asaad Ibn Zurara), ‘Awf Ibn Al-Harith, Rafi’ Ibn Malik, Qutba Ibn Hadida, ‘Uqbah Ibn ‘Aamer and Sa’d Ibn Rabee’; those formed the initial seed of calling for Islam in Al-Medina.
 
Events of the twelfth year after the mission
 
·         The first pledge of allegiance of Al-‘Aqaba: The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) took the pledge of allegiance from twelve men returned to Al-Medina and Allah manifested Islam on their hands; those were:
 
Abu Umama, ‘Awf Ibn Al-Harith, Rafi’ Ibn Malik, Dhakwan Ibn Abd-Qays, Khaled Ibn Mikhlaf, ‘Ubada Ibn As-Samit, Abbas Ibn Ubada, Abu Al-Haytham Ibn At-Tayhan and ‘Uwaim Ibn Sa’ida.
 
·         Sa’d Ibn ‘Ubada and Usaid Ibn Hudair and all the tribe of Banu Abdul-Ashhal embraced Islam.
 
·         Spread of Islam till it pervaded all the tribes of Ansar.
 
Events of the thirteenth year after the mission
 
·         The second pledge of allegiance of Al-‘Aqaba: Seventy three men and two women came to the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) and gave to him the pledge of allegiance at Al-‘Aqaba; then they returned to Al-Medina and Islam pervaded all its houses.
 
The third phase; from his immigration till his death
 
Events of the first year of Hijrah:
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) arrived to Qibaa`.
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) entered Al-Medina and stayed at the house of Abu Ayyub Al-Ansary.
 
·         Establishing Masjid Qibaa`.
 
·         Building the Masjid of the Prophet.
 
·         Convention between the Muslims and Jews.
 
·         Establish brotherhood between the immigrants and the Ansar.
 
·         Beginning of Adhan (i.e. call for prayer).
 
·         Abdullah Ibn Salam embraces Islam.
 
·         Having Al-Medina protected from the plague.
 
·         Having permission to fight.
 
Events of the second year of Hijrah:
 
·         Battle of Waddan, Bwat and Al-Ashra. The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out in these battles for intercepting the caravan of Quraish; but there were no fight because the caravan escaped.
 
·         Battle of Bahr, the first: In this battle, the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out behind Karz Ibn Jabir, because he assailed Muslims’ properties in Al-Medina; but he escaped and there was no fight.
 
·         Detachment of Abdullah Ibn Jahsh: By this detachment, Muslims gained the first booty in Islam.
 
·         Turning the Kiblah to Makkah.
 
·         Enjoining the fast of Ramadan; it was enjoined in Sha’ban.
 
·         Enjoining the payment of Zakat.
 
·         The great battle of Badr: It is he day of Furqan, in which Allah granted victory to His Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) and His believer servants. The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out with three hundred and thirteen men of his companions for intercepting a great caravan for Quraish during its return from Ash-Sham. Quraish people knew about that; so, they gathered about one thousand men for fighting the Muslims. The two parties met in Badr, and the Muslims recorded great victory; they killed seventy, captivated another seventy and gained great booties.
 
·         Banu Qainuqaa’ battle: A Jewish tribe in Al-Medina who broke the convention of the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) and declared enmity; so, they were besieged by the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) and they accepted his sentence.
 
·         As-Swaiq battle: In this battle, the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to seek Abu Sufyan with his fellows, but they escaped and there was no fight.
 
·         Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) married Fatima daughter of the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him).
 
·         The wedding of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with him) and ‘Aisha daughter of Abu Bakr.
 
Events of the third year of Hijrah:
 
·         Ghatafan battle: In this battle, the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to seek some people from Banu Tha’laba and Banu Muharib wanted to raid Al-Medina; but they fled to the mountains.
 
·         Bahran battle: In this battle, the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to seek Banu Salama when he was informed that they intend to attack Al-Medina; but they escaped and went in different directions.
 
·         Uhud battle: In this battle, Quraish people got out for fighting the Muslims; more than seventy Muslims were martyred, and twenty three of the polytheists were killed.
 
In this battle; the face of the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) was injured, his front teeth were broken by stone, his cheeks were injured and a rumor about his death was circulated.
 
In this battle; Hamza, the paternal uncle of the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him), was martyred.
 
·         Hamraa Al-Asad battle: In this battle, the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to seek Quraish people lest they return to Al-Medina.
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) married Hafsah daughter of Omar.
 
·         Prohibition of wine was revealed.
 
Events of the fourth year of Hijrah:
 
·         Ar-Rajee’ mission: The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) sent ten men to call some tribes to Islam and teach them the Holy Quran, and he made ‘Aasim Ibn Thabit Al-Ansari their leader; however, the infidels betrayed and killed them.
 
·         Al-Qurraa` (i.e. reciters of the Holy Quran) mission: The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) sent seventy of the reciters of the Holy Quran to call the people of Najd to Islam; but they were betrayed and killed savagely.
 
·         Banu An-Naddeer battle: The Jewish tribe of Banu An-Naddeer broke the convention and tried to kill the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him); so, he besieged them and enforced them to leave.
 
·         Dhat Ar-Riqaa’ battle: In this battle, the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to fight the tribes of Najd; but they escaped and left their women. (It is said that this battle occurred in the seventh year of Hijrah)
 
·         The prayer of fear and the permissibility of performing ablution with dust (Tayamum when there is no sufficient water) were revealed.
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) married Umm Salama.
 
Events of the fifth year of Hijrah:
 
·         Dawmat Al-Jundul battle: In this battle, the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to seek some Bedouins that practice highway robbery; so, they escaped and left their properties behind them.
 
·         Banu Al-Mustalaq battle: Also known as Al-Muraisee’ battle: In this battle, the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to fight Banu Al-Mustalaq, because they prepared armies for fighting the Muslims. Muslims killed and captivated many of them and took booties from them.
 
·         The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) married Barra daughter of Al-Harith, the master of the tribe. She was among the captivated people; the Prophet called her Juwairya, and this marriage was the reason of Banu Al-Mustalaq conversion to Islam.
 
·         Al-Khandaq (trench) battle: It is the battle of the Allies; the polytheists of Quraish allied with the other Arab polytheists along with the tribe of Banu An-Naddeer, the Jewish tribe, to fight the Muslims. They were ten thousand under the leadership of Abu Sufyan. They wanted to attack Al-Medina; so, the Muslims dug a trench that will prevent them from their target. The allies besieged Al-Medina for fifteen days, then they fled after Allah had sent against them blowing winds and soldiers they did not see.
·
·         Banu Quraidha battle: Banu Quraidha tribe was one of the Jewish tribes in Al-Medina. The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to them along with three thousand men, because they broke the convention and declared enmity during the battle of the Allies. He besieged them till they surrendered, and he (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) accepted the sentence of Sa’d Ibn Mu’aadh; killing the men and captivating the women and children.
 
·         Detachment of Abdurrahman Ibn ‘Awf: It was to Dawmat Al-Jundul and ended with the conversion of its chief along with many of his people.
 
·         Detachment of Zayd Ibn Haritha: It was for intercepting the caravan of Quraish; he intercepted and took it and captivated some people.
 
·         Detachment of Sa’d Ibn Zayd: The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) sent it to punish some individuals from the tribes of ‘Akl and ‘Uraina became apostate and killed a representative to the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him).
 
·         Nullifying the habit of adoption.
 
·         Enjoining putting on the veil.
 
Events of the sixth year of Hijrah:
 
·         Banu Lihian battle: Banu Lihian are the people who perfidiously killed ‘Aasim Ibn Thabit and his brothers; the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to them, but he found no body.
 
·         Al-Ghaba battle: In this battle, the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out to seek ‘Aina Ibn Hisn and his fellows, because they raided the properties of the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) and took it; they killed one of the Muslims, and there were some scrimmages between the two parties.
 
·         Al-Hudaybyah battle: In this battle, there was no fight; rather there was reconciliation between the Muslims and the people of Quraish was known as ‘Sulh Al-Hudaybyah.’
 
·         Ar-Ridwan pledge of allegiance: It occurred after the rumor that was circulated about the murder of ‘Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him); people gave pledge of allegiance to the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) upon death or not escaping. When the people of Quraish heard about that they feared the consequences and released ‘Uthman and his fellows.
 
·         The prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) wrote to the kings of the empires calling them to Islam.
 
Events of the seventh year of Hijrah:
 
·         Khyber battle: In this battle; the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) besieged the fortresses of the Jews of Khyber, who were the gravest conspirators against Islam. Muslims entered their fortresses and gained from them great booties.
 
·         A Jewish woman tried to kill the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) by the poisoned goat.
 
·         The Muslims who immigrated to Ethiopia returned after staying ten years in it.
 
·         Conquest of Fadak (fortress close to Khyber) and making a peace treaty with its people who were Jew.
 
·         Making a peace treaty with the Jewish of Taymaa` provided paying tribute.
 
·         Wadi Al-Qura battle: The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) called its people to Islam; but they refused and fought the Muslims who fought them in turn and gained great booties from them.
 
·         Umrat Al-Qadaa` in the month of Dhul-Qi’dah
 
·         Conversion of Khaled Ibn Al-Waleed, ‘Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas and ‘Uthman Ibn Talha.
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) married Safyyah daughter of Huyay Ibn Al-Akhtab, the master of Banu An-Nadheer tribe.
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) married Maymuna daughter of Al-Harith; the last woman he married.
 
Events of the eighth year of Hijrah:
 
·         Detachment of Mu`tta: In this detachment, the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) prepared three thousand soldier for fighting the Romans after they killed the messenger of the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) to the prince of Basra. The army of the Romans consisted of more than one hundred thousand soldier; however, the Muslims fought hard and the three leaders of the army were killed; Zayd Ibn Haritha, Ja’far Ibn Abu Talib and Abdullah Ibn Rawaha. Muslims were on the verge of defeat but Allah granted success to Khaled Ibn Al-Waleed who reorganized the army and fought very hard then returned to Al-Medina after causing grave losses in the lines of the enemy.
 
·         Conquest of Mecca: It was because Quraish broke one of the terms of Sulh Al-Hudaybyah; so, the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) entered Makkah as victorious conqueror along with ten thousand soldiers.
 
·         Conversion of Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb and Ka’b Ibn Zuhair and others to Islam.
 
·         Forgiving the people of Makkah.
 
·         Hunain battle: In this battle, the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out with twelve thousand soldier to fight the tribes of Thaqif and Hawazin, because they gathered for fighting him. Muslims were defeated at the beginning, because they admired their large number; but little stood firm with the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) and fought the enemies severely till they finally defeated them by the will of Allah.
 
·         Conversion of many of the people of Makkah to Islam.
 
·         Arrival of the delegation of Hawazin to the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him).
 
·         Returning of the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) to Al-Medina.
 
Events of the ninth year of Hijrah:
 
·         Enjoining pilgrimage to the Sacred Masjid.
 
·         Detachment of Ali Ibn Abu Talib: It was for demolishing Al-Fils (the idol of Tay` tribe); he demolished, burned it and defeated its worshippers and gained booty and captives.
 
·         Conversion of ‘Adi Ibn Hatim.
 
·         Tabuk battle: In this battle, the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) got out along with thirty thousand of his companions to fight the Romans who gathered the soldiers in Ash-Sham to raid the Muslims in their countries. In this battle; the hypocrites fallen behind along with some believers. When the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) arrived to Tabuk, he did not find army; so, he returned without fight.
 
·         Arrival of Tameem and Thaqif delegation.
 
·         The letter of the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) to the people of At-Ta`if and demolishing the idol of Thaqif in At-Ta`if.
 
·         Death of the chief of the hypocrites; Abdullah Ibn Ubai Ibn Salul.
 
·         Death of Umm Kalthum daughter of the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him); the wife of ‘Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him).
 
·         The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) ordered Abu Bakr As-Sidik to lead the people in Hajj.
 
·         The revelation of Surat Bara`ah which contains a verse says that polytheists are impure so they should not be allowed to come near the sacred Masjid.
 
Events of the tenth year of Hijrah:
 
·         Detachment of Ali Ibn Abu Talib to Yemen: It was for calling its people to Islam. They insisted to fight, but they were defeated, accepted Islam and their chiefs gave pledge of allegiance to him.
 
·         Sending Mu’adh Ibn Jabal and Abu Musa Al-Ash’ary to Yemen to teach its people the rulings of Islam.
 
·         Farewell Hajj: The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) performed Hajj with more than one hundred thousand Muslims, and he referred indirectly to the nearness of his death after completing the religion and finalizing the grace.
 
·         Death of Ibrahim, son of the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him).
 
Events of the eleventh year of Hijrah:
 
·         The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) became ill, died and buried. My father and mother are ransom to him (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him).
 
 
Compiled by: Khaled Abu Salih

 

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