Ruling on combining Al-’Asr prayer with Al-Jum’ah

Since 2012-11-24

It is not permissible to combine the ‘Asr Prayer and Friday Prayer as the situation when combining the ‘Asr Prayer and the Zuhr Prayer is permissible.

 

It is not permissible to combine Al-’Asr (The Afternoon) Prayer with Aj-Jum’ah (Friday) Prayer
 
In the Name of Allâh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

All the praises and thanks be to Allâh, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists). Prayers and peace of Allah be upon our Prophet, Muhammad, and upon all his family and companions.

There are many questions about the ruling of combining the ‘Asr Prayer and Friday Prayer as the situation in which combining the ‘Asr Prayer and Al-Zuhr (Noon) Prayer is permissible.
 
I answer, seeking the help of Allah, His guidance, and success,
 
It is not permissible to combine the ‘Asr Prayer and Friday Prayer as the situation when combining the ‘Asr Prayer and the Zuhr Prayer is permissible. If a traveler passed by a village and prayed the Friday Prayer with its people, he would not be allowed to combine the ‘Asr Prayer with it. If there is rainfall which allows the combining, it is not permissible to combine the ‘Asr Prayer with Friday Prayer. This is in spite of the fact that it is permissible to combine the Zuhr Prayer and the ‘Asr Prayer in case of the rainfall.
 
If a sick person, who has the right to combine prayers, attended and prayed Friday Prayer, he is not allowed to combine the ‘Asr Prayer with it.
The proof of this is the saying of Allah Almighty, {Verily, As-Salât (the prayer) is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours.} [Surat An-Nisa’ 4:103]
 
{إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوتًا} النساء: 103

Transliteration: inna alssalata kanat AAala almumineena kitaban mawqootan
 
which means that it is prescribed at a specific time. In addition, Allah Almighty declared these times briefly in His saying, {Perform As-Salât (Iqamât-as-Salât) from mid-day till the darkness of the night (i.e. the Zuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib and ‘Ishâ’ prayers), and recite the Qur’ân in the early dawn (i.e. the morning prayer). Verily, the recitation of the Qur’ân in the early dawn is ever witnessed (attended by the angels in charge of mankind of the day and the night)} [Surat Al-Isra’ 17:78]
 
{أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا} الإسراء: 78

Transliteration: Aqimi alssalata lidulooki alshshamsi ilaghasaqi allayli waqurana alfajri inna qurana alfajri kana mashhoodan
 
Therefore, the decline of the sun is its disappearance and the darkness of the night is the heightening of its darkness, which is the mid-night. This time includes four prayers which are Zuhr Prayer, the ‘Asr Prayer, Al-Maghrib (The Sunset) Prayer, and Al-’Ishâ’ (Night) Prayer. These prayers are joined in a defined joined period of time because there is no separation between their specific times. Whenever the time of a specific prayer is ended, the time of the next one starts. On the other hand, the time of Al-Fajr (Dawn) Prayer is separated because it is connected with neither the time of the Night Prayer nor the time of the Zuhr Prayer.
 
The Prophetic Sunnah illustrated these times in details in the Hadith which was narrated by ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn Al-’As and Jâbir, may Allah be pleased with them, and others. They narrated that the time of the Zuhr Prayer is when the sun passes the meridian and the shadow of everything becomes as the same length as its height. The time of the ‘Asr Prayer starts when the shadow of everything becomes as the same length as its height until the setting of the sun, but the time after its yellowing is considered the time of necessity. The time of the Maghrib Prayer is from the setting of the sun until the time of the red twilight. The time of Ishâ’ Prayer starts from the setting of the red twilight until the mid-night, and the time of Dawn Prayer is from the appearance of the dawn until of the time of the sunrise. These are the times of the Prayers in the Holy Book of Allah Almighty and the Sunnah of His Messenger, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him.
 
Therefore, whoever prays before the specific time of the prayer which is mentioned in the Holy Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger is a sinner and his praying is rejected as Allah Almighty says, {And whoever transgresses the limits ordained by Allâh, then such are the Zâlimûn (wrong-doers).} [Surat Al-Baqarah 2:229]
 
{وَمَن يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّـهِ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ} البقرة: 229

Transliteration: waman yataAAadda hudooda Allahi faolaika humu alththalimoona
 
Moreover, the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected.” [Reported by Muslim 1718]
 
«من عمل عملًا ليس عليه أمرنا فهو ردٌّ» رواه مسلم
 
In addition, whoever prays after the specific time of the prayer without a lawful excuse, his prayer is null and void, and he should perform it again, for example, the one who prays the Zuhr Prayer before the disappearance of the sun.
 
Whoever prays the ‘Asr Prayer before the shadow of everything becomes as the same length as its height, his prayer is null and void. In addition, he should perform it again, except if he has a lawful excuse that permits him to combine it with the Zuhr Prayer as an advanced combining.
 
Whoever prays the Maghrib Prayer before the sunset, his prayer is null and void, and he should perform it again.
 
Whoever prays the Ishâ’ Prayer before the setting of the red twilight, his prayer is null and rejected and he should perform it again, except if he has a lawful excuse that permits him to combine it with the Evening Prayer as an advanced combining.
 
Whoever prays the Dawn Prayer before the appearance of the Dawn, his prayer is null and void, and he should repeat it.
 
This is what is prescribed in the Holy Book of Allah Almighty and the Sunnah of His Messenger, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him.
 
Therefore, whoever combined the ‘Asr Prayer with Friday Prayer, he would be praying it before its specific time when the shadow of everything becomes as the same length as its height. Thus, his praying would be null and rejected.
 
If someone said, “Is it permissible to compare combining the ‘Asr Prayer with Friday Prayer as its combining with the Zuhr Prayer?”
 
The answer will be, “No,” it is not permissible for many reasons,
 
Firstly, there is no analogy in acts of worship.
 
Secondly, the Friday Prayer is an independent one which has its own rulings and which is different from the Zuhr Prayer in twenty rulings. Such differences prevent that one of the two Prayers becomes compared to the other.
 
Thirdly, this analogy contradicts the apparent Sunnah. It was reported by Muslim on the authority of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, that he narrated that the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, combined the Zuhr and The ‘Asr prayers and combined the Evening and the Night Prayers in Medina without any cause of fear or rains. He was asked about this and he answered that he “wanted that no one among his nation should be put to [unnecessary] hardship.” [Reported by Muslim 705]
 
«أراد أن لا يحرج أمَّته» رواه مسلم
 
The rain which is considered a hardship happened during the age of the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, and he did not combine The ‘Asr and Friday Prayers. It was narrated in the Authentic Book of Al-Bukhâri and others on the authority of Anas ibn Mâlik, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, invoked Allah to grant them rain on a Friday while he was still on the pulpit. He did not leave the pulpit except when the drops of rains were falling down across his beard. This is usually an indication of much rain that makes it permissible to combine prayers but he did not do it. This means that it is not permissible to combine the ‘Asr and Friday Prayers. In another Friday, a man entered and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Our properties have been sunken and our buildings have become destroyed. Supplicate to Allah to stop rains.” Such situation indicated the existence of mud in roads and they would have combined the ‘Asr and Friday Prayers if this were permissible.
 
If someone asked, “What is the proof of the non-permissibility of combining the ‘Asr and Friday Prayers?”
 
The answer is that this is not a correct question as the main rule of acts of worship is the non-permissibility. The one who did not [add something to] worship Allah Almighty either openly or secretly is not deserving a punishment. On the contrary, the one who worships Allah Almighty on his own way will deserve this. Allah Almighty denies the actions of those who worshipped Him without legislation. He says, {Or have they partners with Allâh (false gods) who have instituted for them a religion which Allâh has not ordained?} [Surat Ash-Shûra 42:21]
 
{أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ شَرَعُوا لَهُم مِّنَ الدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَن بِهِ اللَّـهُ} الشورى: 21

Transliteration: Am lahum shurakao sharaAAoo lahum mina alddeeni ma lam yathan bihi Allahu 

and He Almighty says, {This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islâm as your religion.} [Surat Al-Mâ’idah 5:3]

 
{الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا} المائدة: 3

Transliteration: alyawma akmaltu lakum deenakum waatmamtu AAalaykum niAAmatee waradeetu lakumu alislama deenan 

Moreover, the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected.” [Reported by Muslim 1718]
 
«من عمل عملًا ليس عليه أمرنا فهو ردٌّ» رواه مسلم
 
Thus, if one asked, “What is the proof of the non-permissibility of combining the ‘Asr and Friday Prayers?”
 
We would say, “What is the evidence of its permissibility?” The original rule is that the ‘Asr Prayer should be performed in its due time. This main rule is broken by combining it to the Zuhr prayer when there is a necessity to combine them. Thus, anything other than that would remain as the main rule. This means the non-permissibility of praying it before its due time.
 
If someone asked, “What is the ruling if he intended to pray the Zuhr prayer instead of Friday Prayer in order to have the permissibility of combining the Prayers?”
 
The answer would be that if he was the imam of Friday Prayer at that village and the people of that village intended to pray the Zuhr Prayer, it would be forbidden and the Prayer would be null. This is because Friday is obligatory and if they all left it and performed the Zuhr Prayer, they would be abandoning what is prescribed to what is not prescribed. This would make their deed null and rejected. This is because the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected.” [Reported by Muslim 1718]
 
«من عمل عملًا ليس عليه أمرنا فهو ردٌّ» رواه مسلم
 
If the one who intended to perform the Zuhr instead of Friday Prayer as if he was a traveller who prayed behind an imam who was praying Friday Prayer in order to be able to combine it to the ‘Asr Prayer, this is not permissible, too. Because he witnessed the Friday Prayer, it became obligatory. Whoever is obliged to perform Friday Prayer but he left it and prayed the Zuhr Prayer before the imam ends the prayer, his Zuhr prayer will be null.
 
In addition, even if this were permissible, he would be losing a great reward which is the reward of Friday Prayer.
 
Moreover, the authors of the book Al-Muntaha wa Al-’Iqnâ’, may Allah have mercy on them, stated in the chapter of Friday Prayer that it is not correct to combine the ‘Asr prayer to Friday Prayer.
 
I have elaborated in this issue because of the need to it. I ask Allah to guide us to the right and benefit of His slaves. He is Bountiful and Generous.
 
 
Written by Muhammad As-Salih Al-Uthaymin
 
 
 

 

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