The provisions of Eid al-Fitr

Since 2012-11-11

The provisions of Eid al-Fitr (Breaking the Fast Feast)

 

The provisions of Eid al-Fitr (Breaking the Fast Feast)
 

 

 
All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of mankind, jinn and all that exists, and peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his family and companions.
 
The following is a brief about the provisions of Eid al-Fitr and Zakat al-Fitr (alms to be given associated with Eid al-Fitr). I have tried to ascertain that they are in accordance to the Sunnah of the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, and to be in an easy and clear way. I ask Allah Almighty to benefit all by them, and that He accepts the rest of our deeds.
 
 
Among the provisions of Eid al-Fitr:
 
First: preparing for the Eid prayer by performing total ablution and putting on beautiful cloths
 
Ibn al-Qayyim said, “It was established that with his strict pursuance of the Sunnah, ibn ‘Umar used to perform total ablution on the day of al-Eid before his going out for prayers.” (Zâd al-Mi’âd [the Provisions for the Promise] 1/442). It was also established that he used to put on the best of cloths for the two Eids.
 
Ibn Hajar said, “Ibn Abu-Adduniya and al-Bayhaqi narrated with authentic transmission that ibn ‘Umar used to wear his best garments in the two Eids.” (Fath al-Bari 2/51). A lot of the scholars took these two traditions and others as evidence of the desirability of performing total ablution and to adorn oneself in the two Eids.
 
Second: it is from the Sunnah to eat an odd number of dates before going out to perform the Eid prayer:
 
Three, five or more than that; a person eats them in odd numbers. Anas ibn Malik narrated, “The Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, never proceeded (for the prayer) on the Day of Eid al-Fitr unless he had eaten some dates. Murja’ ibn Raja’ said, ‘Ubaydu-Allah said to me, ‘Anas narrated to me that the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, used to eat odd number of dates.” [Reported by al-Bukhari]
 
«كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا يغدو يوم الفطر حتى يأكل تمرات. وقال مرجأ بن رجاء: حدثني عبيد الله قال: حدثني أنس، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ويأكلهن وترا» رواه البخاري
 
Third: it is from the Sunnah to say allâhu-akbar (Allah is Great) and to say it out loud, on the other hand women should say it in secret, on the day of Eid when he goes out of his house till he reaches the place of prayer:
 
Abdulla ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, narrated that, “He (the Prophet) used to say allâhu-akbar on the day of Eid when he goes out of his house till he reaches the place of prayer.” [Authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«كان يكبر يوم الفطر من حين يخرج من بيته حتى يأتي المصلى» صححه الألباني
 
Nafi’ narrated that, “On the days of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, ibn ‘Umar used to say allâhu-akbar out loud till he reached the place of prayer. He did not stop saying allâhu-akbar till the Imam came (to lead the prayer).” [Authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«أن ابن عمر كان إذا غدا يوم الفطر ويوم الأضحى يجهر بالتكبير حتى يأتي المصلى، ثم يكبر حتى يأتي الإمام» صححه الألباني
 
Attention: gathering to say Allahu-akbar together is innovation which is not proven from the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, nor from his companions. The right thing is that everyone says allahu-akbar individually.
 
Fourth: it is from the Sunnah to go out for prayers walking; on foot:
 
Abdulla ibn ‘Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, used to go out (of his house) for the Eid (prayer) walking and to come back walking.” [Reported by ibn Maja and declared good by al-Albani]
 
«كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يخرج إلى العيد ماشيا ويرجع ماشيا» رواه ابن ماجه وحسنه الألباني
 
He said, “This is a good Hadith. Most scholars act according to it; they prefer that man should go out for the Eid prayer walking and that none but the excused ride for it.”
 
Fifth: it is from the Sunnah that if one goes out for prayer, he is to take one rout and return taking a different one:
 
Jabir ibn Abdulla, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “On the Day of Eid the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, used to return (after offering the Eid prayer) through a way different from that by which he went.” [Reported by al-Bukhari]
 
«كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، إذا كان يوم عيد، خالف الطريق» رواه البخاري
 
Sixth: it is legitimate to perform the Eid prayers after sunrise with no Adhan (call for prayer) or iqamah (second call for prayer):
 
The Eid prayer consists of two rak’ahs. allahu-akbar is said seven times in the first rak’ah and five times in the second. It is from the Sunnah that the Imam reads out loud Surat Al-A’lâ and Surat Al-Ghâshiyah, or Surat Qâf and Surat Al-Qamar. The sermon is due after finishing the prayer; woman should attend it. Among the evidence to the previous is:
 
1. Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “The Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, would say allahu-akbar seven times in the first rak’ah and five times in the second rak’ah on the day of Eid al-Fitr and on the day of Eid al-Adha (sacrifice) (on the occasion of both the Eid prayers).” [Reported by Abu-Dawud and authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يكبر في الفطر والأضحى في الأولى سبع تكبيرات وفي الثانية خمسا» رواه أبو داود وصححه الألباني
 
2. An-Nu’man ibn Bashir said, “The Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, used to recite in the two Eids and Friday prayers {Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High,} and {Has there come to you the narration of the overwhelming (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)?}.” [Reported by Muslim]
 
«كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقرأ في العيدين وفي الجمعة بـ {سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الأَعْلَى}، و {هَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ الْغَاشِيَةِ}» رواه مسلم
 
3. ‘Ubaydu-Allah ibn Abdullah said, “‘Umar ibn al-Khattab asked Abu-Waqid al-Laythi what the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, used to recite on Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr. He said, ‘He used to recite in them {Qâf. [These letters (Qâf, etc.) are one of the miracles of the Qur’ân, and none but Allâh (Alone) knows their meanings]. By the Glorious Qur’ân.} and {The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder (the people of Makkah requested Prophet Muhammad to show them a miracle, so he showed them the splitting of the moon).}.” [Reported by Muslim]
 
«أن عمر بن الخطاب سأل أبا واقد الليثي: ما كان يقرأبه رسول الله -صلّى الله عليه وسلّم- في الأضحى والفطر؟ فقال: كان يقرأ فيهما ب{ق . وَالْقُرْآنِ الْمَجِيدِ}، {اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ}» رواه مسلم
 
4. Umm ‘Atiyya said, “He (the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) commanded us that we go out in the two Eids (for Eid prayers), the unmarried women and purdah-observing ladies, and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of prayers of the Muslims.” [Reported by Muslim]
 
«أمرنا (تعني النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم) أن نخرج، في العيدين، العواتق وذوات الخدور، وأمر الحيض أن يعتزلن مصلى المسلمين» رواه مسلم
 
5. Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, said, “I participated in the Fitr prayer with the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, along with Abu-Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman, and all of them observed this prayer before the sermon was delivered.” [Reported by Muslim]
 
«شهدت صلاة الفطر مع نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبي بكر وعمر وعثمان، فكلهم يصليها قبل الخطبة» رواه مسلم
 
6. Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, said, “The Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, prayed the Eid prayer with no Adhan or Iqamah; and so did Abu-Bakr and ‘Umar.” [Reported by Abu-Dawud and authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم صلى العيد بلا أذان ولا إقامة وأبا بكر وعمر» رواه أبو داود وصححه الألباني
 
Seventh: if the Eid day coincides with a Friday, whoever prays the Eid prayer is not obliged to pray the Friday prayer:
 
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, reported that The Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “Two Eids have gathered for you today; for whoever who wishes that, the Eid prayer will suffice for the Friday prayer. However, we will observe the Friday prayer, Allah willing.” [Reported by ibn Majah and authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«اجتمع عيدان في يومكم هذا فمن شاء أجزأه من الجمعة وإنا مجمعون إن شاء الله» رواه ابن ماجه وصححه الألباني
 
Eighth: who misses the Eid prayer with the Muslim congregation is permitted to make up for it as Eid prayer:
 
If people did not know about the Eid day but after the noon, they should pray the Eid prayer the following day. Abu-’Umayr ibn Anas, may Allah have mercy on him, narrated through some uncles of him who were among the companions of the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, that, “A convoy came to the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him. They bore witness that they had seen the crescent the day before, upon which he ordered them to break the fast and when they wake up in the following morning they go to their place of prayer (to perform the Eid prayer).” [Reported by Abu-Dawud and authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«أن ركبا جاءوا إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يشهدون أنهم رأوا الهلال بالأمس، فأمرهم أن يفطروا وإذا أصبحوا أن يغدوا إلى مصلاهم» رواه أبو داود وصححه الألباني
 
Ninth: there is nothing wrong in exchanging congratulations and that people say, “May Allah accept from all of us.”
 
Ibn At-Turkumani said, “There is a good Hadith concerning this matter. It is the Hadith of Mohamed through Ziyad who said, ‘I was in the company of Abu-Umama al-Bahili and others of the companions of the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him. When they return from the Eid prayer they say to each other, ‘May Allah accept from all of us’.” [Al-Albani said, “Its transmission is good.”]
 
«كنت مع أبي أمامة الباهلي وغيره من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فكانوا إذا رجعوا يقول بعضهم لبعض: تقبل الله منا ومنك» الألباني، إسناده حسن
 
Tenth: the day of Eid is a day of joy and affluence
 
Anas said, “When the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, came to Medina, the people had two days on which they engaged in games. He asked, ‘What are these two days (what is their significance)?’ They said, ‘We used to engage ourselves on them in the pre-Islamic period.’ Upon which the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, said, ‘Allah has substituted for them something better than them, the day of sacrifice and the day of the breaking of the fast’.” [Reported by Abu-Dawud and authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«كان لأهل الجاهلية يومان في كل سنة يلعبون فيها فلما قدم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة، قال: كان لكم يومان تلعبون فيهما، وقد أبدلكم الله بهما خيرا منهما، يوم الفطر، ويوم الأضحى» رواه أبو داود وصححه الألباني
 
Eleventh: beware my Muslim brother from falling into religious violations
 
They are the violations that some people fall into. They include the forbidden adornment such as lengthening the cloth (for men) and shaving the beard. They also include the forbidden celebration of listening to music; the forbidden gaze, the wanton display of women and their intermingling with men. Beware, O jealous father of going out with your family to mixed clubs, or the beaches and parks where evils are shown.
 
 
Fast breaking zakat (alms)
 
Its ruling: it is obligatory on every Muslim, the young and the old, men and women, the free and the slave according to the Hadith of ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, “The Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, ordained the fast-breaking zakat as a sâ’ of dates or a sâ’ of barley upon every Muslim, the free and the slave, men and women, the young and the old. He ordained it to be paid before people went out to offer the Eid prayer.” [Reported by Al-Bukhari]
 
«فرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم زكاة الفطر ، صاعا من تمر أو صاعا من شعير، على العبد والحر، والذكر والأنثى، والصغير والكبير من المسلمين، وأمر بها أن تؤدى قبل خروج الناس إلى الصلاة» رواه البخاري
 
It is obligatory upon the Muslim if he can find a surplus from his and his family’s sustenance on the day of Eid and of the night before. It is paid by the Muslim for him and for those he is responsible to feed of Muslims such as the wife and offspring. It is better that they pay it by themselves if they can afford to because they are addressed to do it. The zakat is not to be paid for the unborn child. Paying the money value of the fast breaking zakat is not rewarded as it contradicts the command of the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, and his doing and his companions’. The Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected.” [Reported by Muslim]
 
«من أحدث في أمرنا هذا ما ليس منه فهو رد» رواه مسلم
 
Its wisdom: ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, said, “The Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has ordained the fast-breaking zakat as a purification for the fasting person from vain talk and obscenity and as a feeding for the needy. If anyone pays it before the Eid prayer, it will be an accepted zakat and if anyone pays it after the Eid prayer, it will be a charity like other charities.” [Reported by Abu-Dawud and Ibn Majah, declared good by Al-Albani]
 
«فرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم زكاة الفطر طهرة للصائم من اللغو والرفث وطعمة للمساكين فمن أداها قبل الصلاة فهي زكاة مقبولة ومن أداها بعد الصلاة فهي صدقة من الصدقات» رواه أبو داود وابن ماجه وحسنه الألباني
 
How should it be paid: it should be paid by the food of people; dates, barley, rice or others of the food of the sons of Adam. Abu-Sa’id al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “We used to give one sâ’ of food or one sâ’ of barley or one sâ’ of dates, or one sâ’ of cottage cheese or one sâ’ of raisins (dried grapes) as the fast breaking zakat.” [Agreed upon]
 
«كنا نخرج زكاة الفطر، صاعا من طعام، أو صاعا من شعير، أو صاعا من تمر، أو صاعا من أقط، أو صاعا من زبيب»  متفق عليه
 
Its due time: it is the sunset of the night before the Eid day. If one dies before sunset, even by a few minutes, the zakat is not obliged upon him. If one dies after sunset, even by a few minutes, the zakat is obliged upon him. If a fetus is born before sunset, the zakat must be paid for it, if it is born after sunset, no zakat is obliged for it.
 
The time to be paid: it is to be paid a day or two before the day of Eid; just as the companions used to do, “… and they used to pay it one day or two before the day of Eid.” [Reported by al-Bukhari]
 
«...وكانوا يعطون قبل الفطر بيوم أو يومين» رواه البخاري
 
The deadline the zakat is due to be paid is the time of Eid prayer as has already been mentioned in the Hadith of ibn ‘Umar and ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them.
 
Its amount: a sâ’ upon each Muslim. A sâ’ = 2.40 kilogram. It is permissible to divide the zakat to be given to more than one poor person. It is also permissible to give one poor person a number of the fast breaking zakat.
 
The people to be given to: they are the poor and needy; according to the afore-mentioned Hadith of ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, “… and as a feeding for the needy.” [Considered good by al-Albani]
 
«...وطعمة للمساكين» حسنه الألباني
 
Attention: it is wrong to give it to other than the poor and the needy as some people are used to doing by giving the zakat to their relatives or neighbors, or as a way of exchange between them. Some people pay it to certain families every year without consideration to the condition of those families, whether they deserve the zakat or not.
 
The place of paying it: it is paid to the poor of the place one is in, whether one lives in it or other. There is nothing wrong to transfer it to other places; as the origin of things is permissibility and there is no evidence to forbid transferring it.
 
Prayers and peace of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad, and upon all his family and companions.
 
 
Slightly modified
Dar Al-Qasim
Yusuf al-Ahmad
 
 

 

 

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