A Man loved by Allah and his Messenger
We place between your hands dear reader this splendid biography of the fourth Caliph and one of the dwellers of paradise.
We praise Allah, leading the eager to what he adores, and giver of the needy with his needs. I thank him for his guidance and hereby testify with his oneness, a testimony by whom acknowledged evidence and source of it. And Allah’s Prayers and peace be upon our Prophet his slave and Messenger ,and upon Abu Bakr his close companion in his travel and settling, and upon Omar the shield of Islam that is not feared to be broken, and upon ‘Uthman the one with patience when ordeal descends, and upon ‘Ali who is feared by his enemy for his courage before his boldness, and May his prayers and blessing be upon all his Family and companions who grasped the lead in the Religion’s foundation and branches, the number of breeze blown south to north, east to west.
We place between your hands dear reader this splendid biography of the fourth Caliph and one of the dwellers of paradise. An eloquent and great preacher, among the most knowledgeable with Judiciary rules and Fatwa he is the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law May Allah be pleased with him.
Name: ‘Ali Ibn Aby T’Alib Ibn Abdul Mut’Alib Ibn Hashim Ibn Abd Mannaf. He is the Prophet’s cousin and his lineage meets with him in their Grandfather Abdul Mut’Alib Ibn Hashim. At first ‘‘Ali was named Asad (lion), It appeared in the battle of Khaibar, were he initiated saying while in combat with Marhaba the Jewish warrior
I am the one my mother named me Haydara (brutal Lion)
Sighted as a ferocious jungle lion
Fulfilling their scales with no loss (meaning killing in number)
Abu T’Alib was away when his wife named him Asad, on his return he named him ‘‘Ali.
Kunya (nickname): Abu Al-Hassan, after his eldest son. Another one was Abu Turab (The one with dust).
Birth: it’s not established specifically when was his birth date, but Ibn Hajjar held the opinion of Ibn-Ishaaq that he was born ten years prior to the revelation to the Prophet .
Family: His tribe is Bani Hashim, His father is Abu T’Alib and his mother is the great companion Fatima Bint Asad Ibn Hashim Ibn Abd Manaf Ibn Qussay.
Abu T’Alib had six children, four boys, and two girls. T’Alib (where he got his Kunya from), Aqeel, Ja’far, ‘Ali, Umm Hani’ and Jumanah. They are all brothers and sisters from the same mother, between every sibling a period of ten years.
Wives and children: After the battle of Badr, the Messenger of Allah made him marry his daughter Fatima with a battle sheild as dowry. The daughter of the beloved Prophet bore him four children; Al-Hassn, Al-Hussein, Zainab the eldest and Umm Kalthum Whom Omar Ibn Al-Khattab Married. Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein are the Prophet’s grandsons and blossoms in this world they are the leaders of youth in paradise.
He married Khawla Bint Ha’far Ibn Qays Ibn Maslama. She bore him a child, Mohamad Al Akbar (the Eldest), Mohamad Ibn Al-Hanafia.
He married Laila Bint Mas’ud Ibn Kh’Alid Ibn Tamim, she bore him ‘Ubayd Allah and Abu Bakr.
He married Umm Al-Banyn Fatima Bint Hizam Ibn Kh’Alid Ibn Ja’far Ibn Raby’a and she bore him Al-Abbas Al Akbar, ‘Uthman, Ja’far Al Akabar and Abdullah.
He married Asmaa’ Bint ‘Umais Al-Khath’amia and she bore him Yahya and ‘Awn.
He married others that bore him many other children. Mohamad Al Asghar, Omar, Umm Hani’, Maymuna, Zaynab Alsughra, Ramlah Al Sughra, Umm Kalthum Al Sughra, Fatima, Umama, Khadija, Umm Al-Kiram, Umm Salama, Umm Ja’far and Nafiesa.
He married Al-Muhayah Bint Imru’ Al-qays and bore him a daughter who died at an early age.
All ‘Ali’s children were 14 males and 19 females and in other narration 17 females.
One of the greatest blessings of Allah upon ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib –May Allah be pleased with him – that his father was poor and had a lot of children, so the Messenger of Allah adopted him to lighten the burden of expenses on Aby Talib and Al-Abbas adopted Ja’far Ibn Aby Talib. ‘Ali grew up in the house of Prophecy, taking care of him turning out in the best discipline and manner, why not as he was disciplined by the best of mankind , thus being the first child to submit to Islam, Moreover one of the pioneer Muslims.
‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib one of the persistent Muslims accompanying the Prophet, him and Abu Bakr joined the Messenger of Allah when he presented Islam to Arab Tribes calling them to submit to it.
In the day of the Prophet’s Hijjrah (emigration) he fled from Makkah to Madina like an outcast, ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib-May Allah be pleased with him- took his place in bed to deceive the infidels, where Quraysh wanted to kill him. In the morning, he left the bed to return people’s properties entrusted to the Messenger of Allah until he returned them all absolving the Prophet’s financial disclosure from any trust. After three nights in Makkah, he made his Hijjarh to Madina on his bare foot with no one to accompany him, that’s why ‘Ali Ibn Aby T’Alibs Hijjrah was full of sacrifice, severity, boldness and courage.
Before the conquest of Makkah, the Messenger of Allah sent Him and Al-Zubair Ibn Al-Aswad in a mission, He said: flee until you reach Khakh gardens, catch-up with a woman, she has letter retrieve it back from her. So we did, on our horses cutting the desert till we reached the Gardens and caught the woman, then we initiated, “Give us the letter” She answered back “I don’t have any letter on me” ‘Ali and Al-Zubair said in one voice “Get it out or we peal your clothes off for it.” At the same moment she pulled the letter stuffed in her head band, we returned with the letter to the Messenger of Allah. The Following message was written in the letter, “From Hattib Ibn Aby Balta’ah to Quraish in Makkah….” Telling them some of the details of the conquest of Makkah that the Messenger of Allah is preparing for. [Reported by Al-Bukhari]
The letter was sent to warn the people of Makkah that the Messenger of Allah is preparing for a conquest, and the Messenger was keen that no one would know about it.
In the conquest of Hunain, ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib stood firm with the Messenger of Allah and the Ansar and Al-Mohajireen whilst others fled away in fear.
After the conquest of Makkah, the Messenger of Allah sent dispatches of men to destroy the idols in the outskirts of Makkah. He sent ‘Ali – may Allah be pleased with him - to destroy the idol called Al-Filss in the lands of Tay’.
In the Year 9 Hijjri (631 C.E) the Messenger of Allah sent Abu Bakr as the Head of the Pilgrimage to Makkah. After his departure Surat Bara’a (Surat Al-Tawba) was revealed to the Messenger , then he sent ‘Ali to Abu Bakr –May Allah be pleased with them - to recite part of this great Surrah on the pilgrims.
In the year 10 Hijjri (632 C.E) the Messenger of Allah sent him to the people of Hamadan to invite them to Islam and as a judge. The Messenger of Allah Supplicated for him saying ( O Allah give him an eloquent tongue and guide his heart, shortly, all the people of Hamadan had submitted to Islam by his efforts, and never after that did he get mixed or doubtful in Judiciary matters). [Reported by Al-Hakim under the condition of Al-Bukhari and Muslim but they didn’t issue it in their books]
When the Messenger of Allah died, ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib – May Allah be pleased with him was among the men who carried out the purification of his body along with Al-Fadl Ibn Al-Abbas his cousin and Usama Ibn Zayd – May allah be pleased with them-.
Why Was he called Abu Turab
Sahl Ibn Sa’d – May Allah be pleased with him - narrated that there was no name dearer to '‘Ali than his nickname Abu Turab (the father of dust or the one with dust). He used to feel happy whenever he was called by this name. Once Allah's Messenger came to the house of Fatima but did not find '‘Ali in the house. So he asked "Where is your cousin?" She replied, "There was something (a quarrel) between me and him whereupon he got angry with me and went out without having a midday nap in my house." Allah's Messenger asked a person to look for him. That person came, and said, "O Allah's Messenger! He (‘Ali) is sleeping in the Masjid." So Allah's Messenger went there and found him lying. His upper body cover had fallen off to one side of his body, and so he was covered with dust. Allah's Messenger started cleaning the dust from him, saying, "Get up, O Abu Turab! Get up, Abu Turab!" [Reported By Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
His Jihad with the Prophet
‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib – May Allah be pleased with him – participated in all of the conquests and expeditions along with the Messenger of Allah except for the conquest of Tabuk. The Messenger of Allah appointed to watch over his family, ‘Ali replied, “O Messenger of Allah you’re leaving me out with the women and children!!” the Messenger of Allah answered him, “Don’t you like to be to me as Harun was to Musa, except there are no Prophets succeeding me?” [Reported by Al-Bukhari]
He also appointed him as a Flag Leader in more than an occasion.
In the Battle of Badr ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib one of three warriors who went for a duel with the enemy along with his uncle Hamza Ibn Abdul Mutalib and ‘Ubayda Ibn Al-Harith, he owned his enemy and killed him.
In the Battle of al-Khandaq, ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib – May Allah be pleased with him- again proves his heroism and courage in sword duel requested by ‘Amr Ibn wud who broke the trench round the Madina. They started their combat, which took time but ended by the killing of ‘Amr Ibn wud.
I the battle of Bani Quraitha, the people who deceived the Messenger of Allah and broke their pact with him., ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib And Al-Zubair Ibn Al-Awam were among who carried out the death penalty on the Jews of Bani Quraitha.
In the year 7 Hijjri (629 C.E), one of ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib’s Many courageous moments, were when one of the enemy forts resisted the Muslims. Until then the Messenger of Allah said:, "I will give the flag to a person at whose hands Allah will grant victory, Who loves Allah and His Messenger, and is loved by Allah and His Messenger" So, the companions of the Prophet got up, wishing eagerly to see to whom the flag will be given, and every one of them wished to be given the flag. But, the Prophet asked for '‘Ali. Someone informed him that he was suffering from opthalmia. So, he ordered them to bring '‘Ali in front of him. Then the Prophet spat in his eyes and his eyes were cured immediately as if he had never any eye-trouble. '‘Ali said, "We will fight them (i.e. infidels) till they become like us (i.e. Muslims)." The Prophet said, "Be patient, till you face them and invite them to Islam and inform them of what Allah has enjoined upon them. By Allah! If a single person embraces Islam at your hands (i.e. through you), that will be better for you than the red camels (known to be a priceless fortune to the Arabs." [Reported by Al-Bukhari]
The period of Abu Bakr’s succession
There were many narrations stating that ‘Ali was late in pledging allegiance to Abu Bakr along with Al-Zubair – May Allah be pleased with them -. In a more authentic narrations, it mentioned that both of them pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr as a successor to the Messenger of Allah - May Allah be pleased with them- from the beginning in the general pledge of allegiance conducted in the Masjid in front of the public. He confirmed the aforementioned words during a sermon on the pulpit of Al-Kuffa while praising Abu Bakr Al-Sidiq and Omar – May Allah be pleased with them – saying, “When the Muslims pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr with content, I was amongst the first to pledge allegiance from the kins of Abdul Muttalib.”
‘Ali – May Allah be pleased with him was a sincere advisor to Abu Bakr – May Allah be pleased with him. In the Battel of Al-Qassah, when the Bedouins circled the Madina to siege it and get back at the Muslims while the army of ‘Usama Ibn Zaid was at the outskirts of Al-Sham (Jordan). The Caliph Abu Bakr wanted to participate in the battle leading the army, so he rode his horse. Then ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib – May Allah be pleased with him said to Abu Bakr, “I will tell you what the Messenger of Allah said in the battle of ‘Uhud, sheathe your sword and don’t stun us with your death, head back to Madina. By Allah, if you die Islam won’t see the light again." [Ibn Katheer, Al-Beedaya wal Neehaya (The beginning and the end) (6/314-315 )]
This indicates that he wasn’t forced to pledge allegiance in first place, for he was forced that would be great chance to get rid of Abu Bakr – May Allah be pleased with them both -.
‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib – May Allah be pleased with him – said, “Shan’t I tell you about the best person in this nation after the Messenger of Allah? It is Abu Bakr. Shan’t I tell you about the best person in this nation after Abu Bakr? It is Omar.” [Reported by Ahmad and authenticated by Ahmad Shakir]
‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib in the period of Abu Bakr’s succession was the person responsible for monetary matters like the Khums And Al-Fay’ (fifth- sum of money dedicated to the family of the Messenger of Allah , kins, needy, orphans and travellers in an unknown land from the booties of war). ‘Ali – May Allah be pleased with him used to observe the five prayers in congregation behind Abu Bakr – May Allah be pleased with him- pleased with him as Imam. He also narrated some Ahadith of the prophet from Abu Bakr - May Allah be pleased with them, never the less the righteous Caliph consulted him on whom to be fit as his successor, ‘Ali advised him with Omar Ibn Al-Khattab.
When Abu Bakr died ‘Ali came running weeping saying, “May Allah have mercy on you Abu Bakr you were the Prophet’s intimate companion, his friend, secret keeper, consultant and trusted fellow. You were the first to submit to Islam.” [Reported In Al Ahadith Al Mokhtarah By Al-Maqdisi]
The Period Of Al-Faruq Omar –May Allah be pleased with him
‘Ali – May Allah be pleased with him- a unique member among the council of Omar – May Allah be pleased with him- rather he was the primary advisor to the righteous Caliph. Even Omar highlighted ‘Ali’s Wisdom, Fiqh and favours through a remark saying, “Ali is the most knowledgeable in judiciary particularities.”
Ibn Al-Jawzi said: “Abu Bakr and Omar used to consult him, and Omar used to say “I seek refuge of Allah from any case missing Abu Al-Hassan’s opinion.””
Omar and ‘Ali - may Allah be pleased with them – had mutual respect, trust and love for the sake of Allah , that’s why ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib gave his daughter Umm Kalthum daughter of Fatima – May Allah be pleased with them- to Omar in marriage for the kind and deep relation among each other.
When the righteous Caliph Omar Ibn Al-Khattab was stabbed the Muslims rushed to him saying “O leader of the believers name a successor” he replied saying, “I can’t find anyone worthy of such responsibility than this group that the Messenger of Allah died being pleased with” then he named ‘Ali, ‘Uthman, Al-Zubair, Talha, Sa’d and Abdul Rahman Ibn ‘Awf.
After the death of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab - May Allah be pleased with him- ‘Ali said, “I never been apart from someone that I loved to meet Allah with deeds like him except you, by Allah I am sure that Allah will join you with your companions, for I have heard the Messenger of Allah say, “I went With Abu Bakr and Omar, we entered me and Abu Bakr and Omar, I left with Abu Bakr And Omar.” [Al- Bukhari]
He also said, “Omar was a wise man.”
The Period Of ‘Uthman – may Allah be pleased with him-
Narrated by the Author of Al Tamhid Wal Bayan that ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib – May Allah be pleased with him – was the first to pledge allegiance to ‘Uthamn Ibn ‘Afan after Abdul Rahman Ibn ‘Awf as a successor to Omar- May Allah be pleased with them.
As for favoring ‘Uthman and ‘Ali, the belief of Ahl Alsunnah Wal Jamma’a that whomever favors ‘Ali over Abu Bakr And Omar is a deviant innovator, as for favoring ‘Ali over ‘Uthman the scholars have commented that he is wrong but not deviant, however some scholars spoke harshly upon who claimed so. May Allah be pleased with them All.
Shaykh Al Isalm Ibn Taymyiah said: “whoever doubts the Succession of this guided lot he is ever deviant than the donkey of his folk’s property.”
Concerning the position of ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib – May Allah be pleased with him – from ‘Uthman’s assassination, he is innocent from any guilt accused to him like the innocence of the wolf from Yusuf’s – Allah’s peace be upon him- Blood.
People of Fitna (who caused chaos) out of falseness related a letter with the seal of ‘Ali on it to him. This letter contains a call for mutiny against ‘Uthman, rather he was one of the protectors of ‘Uthman but he ordered the companions to leave him alone and to confirm with his order as their leader. ‘Uthman didn’t want to see the blood of the Muslims shed for his sake. ‘Ali sent Al-Hassan and Al-Hussein to stand on ‘Uthman’s door to guard him put their swords cross the doors against anyone trying to pass.
Out of the love of ‘Ali to ‘Uthman he named one of his children after him. When Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri asked him about his child he said, “This is ‘Uthman I named him after ‘Uthman Ibn ‘Afan, and I named Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, Al-Abbas etc….
‘Ali Ibn Aby T’Alib the Caliph – May Allah be pleased with him
‘Ali was pledged allegiance as a successor to ‘Uthman after his death by the people of Madina amongst the Muhajireen and Al Ansar. Al-Zubair and Talha saw ‘‘Ali more qualified to be a Caliph than them.
Ibn Hajjar said: Al-Tabbari narrated with an authentic chain of transmission that Al-‘Ahnaf Ibn Qais –may Allah be pleased with him- said, “I met Talha And Al-Zubair after the siege of ‘Uthman and asked what do you see fit, he is going to be killed, they replied “Go to ‘Ali”. I went ‘Aisha – May Allah be pleased with her after the death of ‘Uthman in Makkah and asked what do you see fit, she replied, “Go to ‘Ali’.” All the people of truth and justice confirmed on the legitimacy of ‘Ali’s succession- May Allah be pleased with him. He was the most worthy of the succession than any of the other companions. He is the fourth righteous guided Caliph.
In the period of ‘Ali the Khawarej (separatists) emerged. He fought them in the battle of Al Nahrawan where they were killed and only seven or four were killed from his Army. Among the killed was Al-Makhdaj Thu Al-Thadya. The Messenger of Allah have informed the companions about him saying, “A group will emerge at a moment of dispute between the Muslims, and the party closest to the truth will kill this group”. In another narration Thu Al-Thadya was mentioned among them. So ‘Ali went searching for him among the dead until he found him, then he prostrated to Allah thanking him that he knows now he is on the side of truth.
‘Ali – May Allah be pleased with him- didn’t feel guilty for killing the people of Al Nahrawan, rather he prostrated thanking his lord and feeling joy, on the other hand he felt saddened gravely for the death of the people of Al Jamal and Sefeen as there were companions of the Messenger of Allah among the two parties. After two years from the battle of Al Nahrawan ‘Ali Ibn Aby Talib the righteous Caliph – May Allah be pleased with him- was assassinated and died as a martyr by the hands of Abdul Rahman Ibn Muljim “Al-kharijy” the separate.
His period of succession was four years, eight months and three days. He was pledged allegiance for the succession of ‘Uthman Ibn ‘Afan on the 18th of Thu- Al Hijjah, the year 35 from Hijjrah. He was martyred on the 21st of Ramadan year 40 from Hijjrah. The people carried out ritual purification of his body were Al-Hassan, Al-Hussein and Abdullah Ibn Ja’far, Al-Hassan prayed on him.
His age was disputed upon, but the most authentic opinion is 63 years.
The Messenger of Allah told ‘‘Ali – May Allah be pleased with him-, “The most unfortunate of human beings are two, the one who killed the She-camel (of Saleh may Allah have peace on him) and the one to hit you on this (He put his hand over his head, meaning by a sword) until blood is spilled over this i.e his beard.” [Authenticated by Al-Albani]
His place of burial not known exactly, but the most famous opinion is that he is buried in the palace of Khilafa in Al-Kufa. The grave known to people now is said to be the grave of Al-Mughira Ibn Shu’ba – May Allah be pleased with him – by some scholars.
Translated by Wathakker.info website