Trade: Regulations and Etiquettes

Since 2012-11-20

Trade is one of the important things in life; people’s life cannot be easy without trade. In life, the man needs many things; such as food, drink, clothes, houses, furniture, vehicles …etc.

All Praise is due to Allah alone, and prayers and peace of Allah be upon the last Prophet.

 
Trade is one of the important things in life; people’s life cannot be easy without trade. In life, the man needs many things; such as food, drink, clothes, houses, furniture, vehicles …etc. Actually, man’s need to some of these things is ongoing, and there are only few people, if there is any, have self-sufficiency and do not need others for fulfilling many of their needs. However; nowadays, where could we find who eats from his own cultivation and wears from his own spinning and weave?
 
Therefore; people’s need for trade is urgent need, to achieve their utilities and facilitate their affairs.
 
 
Trade’s definition:
 
Linguistically; trade means selling and buying.
Al-Jurjani said: “Trade means buying something to sell it in order to gain profit.” (At-Ta’rifat)
 
 
Qur`an’s talk about trade:
 
The Holy Qur`an mentioned ‘Trade’ nine times; among them is His saying: {O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allâh is Most Merciful to you} [Surat An-Nisâ` 4:29]
 
{يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَنْ تَرَاضٍ مِنْكُمْ وَلا تَقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا} النِّساء: 29
 
Transliteration: Yā 'Ayyuhā Al-Ladhīna 'Āmanū Lā Ta'kulū 'Amwālakum Baynakum Bil-Bāţili 'Illā 'An Takūna Tijāratan `An Tarāđin Minkum Wa Lā Taqtulū 'Anfusakum 'Inna Al-Laha Kāna Bikum Raĥīmāan
 
Also, it mentioned ‘Sale’ fifteen times; among them is His saying: {whereas Allâh has permitted trading (i.e. sale) and forbidden Ribâ (usury)} [Surat Al-Baqarah: 2:275]
 
{وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا} البقرة: 275
 
Transliteration: Wa 'Aĥalla Al-Lahu Al-Bay`a Wa Ĥarrama Ar-Ribā
 
Furthermore, it mentioned ‘Buy’ twenty five times; among them is His saying: {And they sold him for a low price - for a few Dirhams (i.e. for a few silver coins). And they were of those who regarded him insignificant} [Surat Yusuf 12:20]
 
{وَشَرَوْهُ بِثَمَنٍ بَخْسٍ دَرَاهِمَ مَعْدُودَةٍ وَكَانُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الزَّاهِدِينَ} يوسف: 20
 
Transliteration: Wa Sharawhu Bithamanin Bakhsin Darāhima Ma`dūdatin Wa Kānū Fīhi Mina Az-Zāhidīna
 
This is in addition to many other words mean trade; like the saying of Allah Almighty: {you may disperse through the land, and seek the Bounty of Allâh (by working, etc.), and remember Allâh much: that you may be successful} [Surat Al-Jumu`ah 62:10]
 
{فَانْتَشِرُوا فِي الأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ} الجمعة: 10
 
Transliteration: Fa'idhā Quđiyati Aş-Şalāatu Fāntashirū Fī Al-'Arđi Wa Abtaghū Min Fađli Al-Lahi Wa Adhkurū Al-Laha Kathīrāan La`allakum Tufliĥūna
 
And that is why Al-Bukhari mentioned in his Sahih “Chapter of seeking trade and the saying of Allah Almighty: {you may disperse through the land, and seek the Bounty of Allâh (by working, etc.), and remember Allâh much: that you may be successful} [Surat Al-Jumu`ah 62:10].”
 
 
The merit of trade:
 
Trade is one of the best and most honorable ways for earning provision as long as the dealer avoids forbidden ways of making profit and holds fast to the etiquettes of Islam. It is narrated on the authority of Ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with them) that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) was asked, “Which way of earning income is better?” Whereupon he said: “Man’s craft by his (own) hand; and every trade is blessed.” [Authenticated by Al-Albani 1690 in Sahih At-Targhib]
 
«عمل الرَّجل بيده، وكلِّ بيعٍ مبرورٍ» صحَّحه الألباني 1690 في صحيح التَّرغيب
 
The blessed trade is the trade that is not mixed with lie or any evil doing (Gharib Al-Hadith by Ibn Salam).
 
The Holy Qur`an counted as equal the rank of those who fight for the cause of Allah and those who gain their provision through lawful ways; especially trade. Allah Almighty says: {So, recite you of the Qur’ân as much as may be easy for you. He knows that there will be some among you sick, others travelling through the land, seeking of Allâh’s Bounty, yet others fighting in Allâh’s Cause.} [Surat Al-Muzzammil 73:20]
 
{فَاقْرَءُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ عَلِمَ أَنْ سَيَكُونُ مِنْكُمْ مَرْضَى وَآخَرُونَ يَضْرِبُونَ فِي الأَرْضِ يَبْتَغُونَ مِنْ فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَآخَرُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ} المزمل: 20
 
Transliteration: Fāqra'ū Mā Tayassara Mina Al-Qur'āni `Alima 'An Sayakūnu Minkum Marđa Wa 'Ākharūna Yađribūna Fī Al-'Arđi Yabtaghūna Min Fađli Al-Lahi Wa 'Ākharūna Yuqātilūna Fī Sabīli Al-Lahi
 
Imam Al-Qurtubi says: “In this verse, Allah Almighty made as equal the rank of those who fight for the sake of Allah and those who gain their provision through lawful ways to support themselves and their children, besides giving charity. Hence; this is evidence proofs that earning money equals fighting in the cause of Allah, because Allah mentioned it (i.e. earning money) along with fighting in His cause … Moreover; Ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with them) said: “Allah did not create a way of death I like having it, after dying in the cause of Allah, more than having death between the sides of my riding animal; at the time of seeking the Bounty of Allah during travel.” (Tafsir Al-Qurtubi)
 
 
Prohibitions in trade:
 
1- Trading in what is prohibited:
 
It is unlawful to have trade in whatever is prohibited by Shari’ah. It is unlawful to have trade in wine, drugs, pigs, statues, lewd movies, newspapers or magazines spread profligacy, or any other thing Islam counts having or distributing it or gaining benefits from it unlawful trade. Indeed, any gain comes from this way is evil ill-gotten gain and any flesh grows from such ill-gotten provision is liable to Hell-Fire.
 
It is narrated on the authority of Jabir ibn Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with them) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) says in the Year of Victory while he was in Makkah: “Verily Allah and His Messenger have forbidden the sale of wine, dead animal (not slaughtered), swine and idols.” It was said: “O Allah's Messenger, you see that the fat of the dead animal is used for coating the boats and varnishing the hides and people use it for lighting purposes.” Whereupon he said: “No, it is forbidden,” Then the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “May Allah the Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when Allah forbade the use of fat of the dead animal for them, they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price (received from it).” [Agreed upon]
 
««إنَّ الله ورسوله حرَّم بيع الخمر والميَّتة والخنزير ، والأصنام، فقيل: يا رسول الله، أرأيت شحوم الميَّتة، فإنَّها يطلى بها السُّفن، ويدهن بها الجلود ، ويستصبح بها النَّاس -يجعلونها في مصابيحهم يستضيئون بها-؟ فقال: لا، هو حرام. ثمَّ قال رسول الله -صلّى الله عليه وسلّم- عند ذلك: قاتل الله اليهود إنَّ الله لمَّا حرَّم شحومها جملوه -أذابوه واستخرجوا دهنه-، ثمَّ باعوه فأكلوا ثمنه» متفق عليه
 
Allah Almighty said about the Jews: {And unto those who are Jews, We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof, and We forbade them the fat of the ox and the sheep.} [Surat Al-`An’âm 6:146]
 
{وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا كُلَّ ذِي ظُفُرٍ وَمِنَ الْبَقَرِ وَالْغَنَمِ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ شُحُومَهُمَا} الأنعام:146
 
Transliteration: Wa `Ala Al-Ladhīna Hādū Ĥarramnā Kulla Dhī Žufurin Wa Mina Al-Baqari Wa Al-Ghanami Ĥarramnā `Alayhim Shuĥūmahumā
 
Also, it is narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him and his father too) that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “When Allah forbids something, He forbids its price too.” [Authenticated by Al-Albani by Al-Albani in Ghaiat Al-Maram 318]
 
«إنَّ الله إذا حرَّم شيئًا حرَّم ثمنه» صحَّحه الألباني 318 في غاية المرام
 
2- Cheat:
 
All types of cheat and deceive are prohibited in trade. It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) happened to pass by a heap of eatables (corn). He thrust his hand in that (heap) and his fingers were moistened. He said to the owner of that heap of eatables (corn): “What is this?” He replied: “Messenger of Allah, these have been drenched by rainfall.’ He (i.e. the Prophet) remarked: “Why did you not place this (i.e. the drenched part of the heap) over other eatables so that the people could see it? He who deceives is not of me.” [Reported by Muslim: 102]
 
«أنَّ رسول الله -صلَّى الله عليه وسلّم مرَّ على صبرة طعام -الكومة المجموعة من الطَّعام- فأدخل يده فيها، فنالت أصابعه بللًا، فقال: ما هذا يا صاحب الطَّعام؟ قال: أصابته السَّماء يا رسول الله! قال: أفلا جعلته فوق الطَّعام كي يراه النَّاس؟ من غشَّ فليس منِّي» صحيح مسلم102
 
The saying of the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) ‘is not of me’ or ‘is not of us’ (as it is in other narrations) means (according to the scholars) that such person is not one of those who followed our guidance and took our knowledge, conduct and good way as model. (Sharh An-Nawawi Ala Sahih Muslim)
 
The following are some types of cheat;
 
A.   Selling expired commodities.
B.    Tampering with weights; by labeling false weight on the can or package.
C.   Bluffing; by counterfeiting the trade marks.
D.   Describing the contents unreal descriptions.
E.    Not accomplishing the constructions according to the agreed upon specifications.
F.    Using false money in the transactions.
G.   Hiding the defects of the commodity or praising it for things are not real.
 
Whenever Jarir ibn Abdullah Al-Bajli (may Allah be pleased with him) wanted to sell a commodity, he declared its defects and said: “If you want to buy, you can buy; and if you want to leave, you can leave.” And when it is said to him: “Such a way will not allow you to accomplish a transaction.” He remarked: “We gave pledge to the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) that we will advise every Muslim.”
 
And when Muhammad ibn Sirin sold a sheep, he said to the buyer: “I would declare to you a defect in it; it turns the forage upside down by its leg.” (Ihiaa Ulum Ad-Dein)
 
A man sold a she-camel belongs to Wathila ibn Al-Asqaa (may Allah be pleased with him) for three hundred dirhams, at his presence. However; Wathila was inattentive at the time of transaction and the buyer went with the she-camel. Therefore; Wathila sought the buyer and shouted at him, “O man, did you buy it for meat or riding?” The man replied, “I bought it for riding.” Whereupon Wathila said, “Then, I had seen a hole in its hoof and it does not walk continually.” So, the buyer returned the she-camel and bought it again after lowering its price one hundred dirhams; then he said to Wathila, “May Allah mercy you, you benefited me!” Wathila said, “We gave pledge to the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) that we will advise every Muslim.” Then Wathila said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) says: ‘it is not lawful for somebody to sell something without revealing its defect; moreover, it is not lawful for anybody to know its defect and then do not reveal it.’” [Authenticated by Al-Albani in Ghaiat Al-Maram 339]
 
«لا يحلُ لأحدٍ يبيع بيعًا إلا بيَّن ما فيه و لا يحلُّ لمن يعلم ذلك إلا بيَّنه» صححه الألباني فى غاية المرام
 
Yunus ibn Ubaid once had in his shop garments with different prices; some of these garments were by four hundred dirhams while others were by two hundred dirhams. He went to the Masjid leaving his nephew in the shop. Then, a Bedouin came and asked for a garment by four hundred dirhams. The nephew offered to him one of the garments that cost two hundred dirhams. The Bedouin was admired by the garment and bought it; and then he went with it. When Yunus met him in the road, he knew his garment; therefore, he asked the Bedouin, “How much did you pay for it?” The man said, “Four hundred dirhams.” Whereupon Yunus said, “It does not cost more than two hundred dirhams; you should return it.” The man said, “In our country, it costs more than five hundreds; furthermore, I accepted this price.” Yunus said, “Indeed, advising in the religion is better than the world along with all its properties.” Then he paid-back to him two hundred dirhams and disputed with his nephew saying, “Would not you feel shame? Would not you fear Allah? You gain double the price and leave advising the Muslims!” His nephew said, “By Allah, he was pleased at buying it!” Yunus said, “Would not you accept to him what you accept to yourself?!”
 
3- False swearing:
 
It is prohibited to promote a commodity by false swearing. It is narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Three are the (persons) with whom Allah would neither speak on the Day of Resurrection, nor would look at them nor would absolve them and there is a severe punishment for them.” The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) repeated it three times. Abu Dharr remarked: “They failed and they lost; who are these persons, Messenger of Allah?” Upon this he (i.e. the Prophet) observed: “They are: the one who hangs low his lower garment, the one who makes favors -who does not give anything but reminds the taker with what he gave him-, the seller of goods -who sells them by taking false oath-.” [Reported by Muslim: 106]
 
«ثلاثة لا يكلمهم الله يوم القيامة، ولا ينظر إليهم، ولا يزكيهم، ولهم عذاب أليم، قال فقرأها رسول الله -صلّى الله عليه وسلّم- ثلاث مرار، قال أبو ذر: خابوا وخسروا، من هم يا رسول الله؟ قال: المسبل -الّذي يجر ثوبه خيلاء-، والمنَّان -الّذي يذكر إحسانه ممتنًا به على المحسن إليه- والمنفق سلعته -المروج لها- بالحلف الكاذب» رواه مسلم: 106
 
Also, it is prohibited to swear much, even if it is the truth. It is narrated on the authority of Abu Qatada Al-Ansari (may Allah be pleased with him) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) says: “Beware of swearing; it produces a ready sale for a commodity, but blots out the blessing.” [Reported by Muslim: 1607]
 
«إيَّاكم وكثرة الحلف في البيع فإنَّه ينفق ثمَّ يمحق» رواه مسلم: 1607
 
4- Meeting the merchandise in the way:
 
It is meeting the merchandise in the way, before having it brought into the market, to buy it by lower price. (Al-Mawsouaa Al-Fiqhiyah Al-Kuwaitiyah)
 
It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) “forbade meeting the merchandise (in the way).” [Reported by Muslim]
 
«نهى رسول الله -صلّى الله عليه وسلّم- أن يتلقى الجلب» رواه مسلم
 
Also, it is narrated on the authority of ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with them) that “the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) forbade meeting the merchandise in the way, (wait) until it is brought into the market.” [Agreed upon 1519 worded by Muslim]
 
«أنَّ رسول الله -صلّى الله عليه سلّم- نهى أن تتلقى السِّلع حتى تبلغ الأسواق» متفق عليه
 
5- Monopoly:
 
Monopoly means hoarding whatever people need and is harmed by hoarding it, whether it is food or drink or clothes or anything else, in order that its price may rise.
 
Verily, this Hadith indicates frank prohibition of monopoly. (Sharh An-Nawawi Ala Sahih Muslim)
 
It is narrated on the authority of Ma'mar ibn Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “No one hoards but the sinner.” [Reported by Muslim 1605]
 
«لا يحتكر إلا خاطئ» صحيح مسلم 1605
 
Indeed, ‘sinner’ is not an easy word; it is enough to know that it is the word that the Qur`an used to describe the most wrongful toughest polytheists. He Almighty said: {Verily, Fir‘aun (Pharaoh), Hâmân and their hosts were sinners} [Surat Al-Qasas 28:8].
 
{إِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ وَهَامَانَ وَجُنُودَهُمَا كَانُوا خَاطِئِينَ} القصص: 8
 
Transliteration: 'Inna Fir`awna Wa Hāmāna Wa Junūdahumā Kānū Khāţi'īna
 
Ibn Mas`ûd (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “No man brings goods to one of the Muslim cities (faithfully out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allah's rewards) to sell it by the day’s price but Allah will give to him the rank of martyrs.” Then he recited: {others travelling through the land} [Surat Al-Muzzammil 73:20]
 
{وَآخَرُونَ يَضْرِبُونَ فِي الأَرْضِ} المزمل: 20
 
Transliteration: Wa 'Ākharūna Yađribūna Fī Al-'Arđi
 
Also, it is narrated that one of the righteous forefathers sent a ship loaded with wheat to Basra and wrote to his agent: “Sell this food once it gets in Basra and do not delay selling it to the next day.” Then, it happened that the goods entered the city while the prices were low. So, the merchants said to the agent, “If you delayed selling it for just a week, you would win doubled gains.” Therefore; he did and won doubled gains. Then he wrote to the owner telling him about that. Whereupon the owner remarked, “O man, I was satisfied with little gain accompanied with the soundness of my religion, but you contradicted that. Actually, I do not like having doubled gains accompanied with missing something from the religion; you have wronged me. So, once you receive this letter, you have to give all the money to the poor people in Basra. Indeed, I hope safety from the sin of monopoly, even if I will gain nothing.” (Ihiaa’ Ulum Ad-Din)
 
6- A man should not purchase in opposition to his brother nor should he offer a price for a thing for which his brother had already offered a price:
It is narrated on the authority of ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with them) that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “A man should not purchase in opposition to his brother.” [Agreed upon]
 
«ولا يبيع الرَّجل على بيع أخيه» متفق عليه
 
Also, it is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “A Muslim should not offer a price for a thing for which his brother had already offered a price.” [Reported by Muslim 1413]
 
 رواه مسلم««لا يسم المسلم على سوم أخيه
 
However; bidding higher price in an auction is not forbidden (Sharh An-Nawawi Ala Sahih Muslim).
 
7- The outbidding (against another):
 
It is narrated on the authority of ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with them) “That the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) forbade the outbidding (against another).” [Agreed upon]
 
«أنَّ رسول الله -صلّى الله عليه وسلّم- نهى عن النَّجْش» متفق عليه
 
8- Tying up:
 
It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Do not tie up udders of camels and sheep, and he who buys them after that has been done has two courses open to him: after he has milked them he may keep them if he is pleased with them, or he may return them along with a sit of dates if he is displeased with them.” [Agreed upon]
 
«لا تُصَرُوا الإبل والغنم، فمن ابتاعها بعد فإنَّه بخير النّظرين بعد أن يحتلبها: إن شاء أمسك، وإن شاء ردها وصاع تمر» متفق عليه
 
This means that it is prohibited to tie up the udder of the animal, at selling it; to make the buyer thinks that the animal’s udder is always full. Actually, you should know that tying up the udder is forbidden; whether the animal is she-camel, cow, goat, horse or she-ass or any other animal, because it is deceive and cheat. The act of transaction is sound; although it is forbidden and the buyer has the right to keep it or return it back. Moreover; this Hadith indicates the prohibition of defraudation in anything, although the transaction is sound. Also, it indicates that defraudation in action is as prohibited as defraudation in saying. (Sharh An-Nawawi Ala Sahih Muslim)
 
Furthermore; tying up the udder is forbidden, because it harms the animal by holding the milk in it. (Fath Al-Bari)
 
9- Having transactions with the enemies of Islam and seditious people:
 
Also, it is forbidden to sell to the enemies whatever enables them to engage war against us; such as selling iron and weapons to them, even if it is after having a truce; because the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) forbade that. However; it is permissible to have transactions with them in anything else as long as the Muslims do not need it.
 
Hence; it is forbidden to sell weapons to the enemies and whoever you know that he wants to practice banditry against Muslims or raise disorder among them.
 
Al-Hassan Al-Basri said: “It is not lawful for a Muslim to carry a weapon to the enemy of Muslims to present to them power against the Muslims. Furthermore; he is not allowed to present to them KURAA (i.e. KURAA is a name refers to the horses and weapons) or whatever enables them to have weapons and KURAA; because selling weapons to the enemies indicates supporting them in fighting the Muslims and inciting them to engage the wars and continue the fight (because of their being supported by the weapons). Verily, this enjoins the prohibition.” (Al-Mawsouaa Al-Fiqhiyah Al-Kuwaitiyah)
 
 
Among the etiquettes of trade:
 
In Islam, there are regulations and ethical values the merchants should have. Actually, these regulations and values are derived from the Book of Allah (Almighty), the Sunnah of His Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) and the biographies of the companions and righteous forefathers concerning their transactions. These etiquettes include the following:
 
1- The good intention:
 
It is narrated on the authority of Omar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) says: “The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended…” [Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1]
 
«إنَّما الأعمال بالنِّيَّات، وإنَّما لكلّ امرئٍ ما نوى...» صحيح البخاري
 
The good intention turns the habit into worship. Therefore; every person, especially who works in the field of trade, should have good intention, to gain the reward from Allah. Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali says about the things which the merchant has to care for at the first stance: “Having good intention at beginning the trade; the person should intend refraining asking people or hoping things from them, because of being granted lawful provision enables him to get along without them. This is in addition to facilitating whatever he earns for fulfilling the obligations of the religion and supporting the children, in order that he may be among those who fight by the properties. Furthermore; he should intend advice for the Muslims, loving for all people whatever he likes for himself, and following the way of Justice and beneficence in his transactions. Also; he should intend enjoining the good and forbidding the evil about whatever he faces in the market. Then; if he intended all these intentions, he would be worker for Hereafter. Finally; if he gained money, he would have gained extra benefit. On the other hand; if he lost in the worldly life, he would win in Hereafter.” (Ihiaa’ Ulum Ad-Din)
 
2- Leniency in the transaction:
 
The Muslim should be lenient in the transaction; he should have noble manners and abstain from dispute and roughly demanding back his money.
It is narrated on the authority of Jabir ibn Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him and his father too) that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “May Allah's mercy be on him who is lenient in his buying, selling, and in demanding back his money.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2076]
 
«رحم الله رجلًا، سمحًا إذا باع، وإذا اشترى، وإذا اقتضى» صحيح البخاري
 
As for his saying “Allah's mercy be on him”, it is either invocation from the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) for whoever has leniency in transaction (Actually, the invocation of the Messenger of Allah is more likely to be accepted by Allah, the Exalted the Glorious), or telling from him (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) that Allah's mercy includes such person. Anyway, whether it is invocation or telling; it incites having leniency in transaction.
 
3- Holding fast to truthfulness and honesty:
 
It is narrated on the authority of ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with him and his father too) that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “The honest truthful merchant would be with the martyrs on the Day of Resurrection.” [Reported by Al-Albani 1783 in Sahih At-Targhib and said that it is good authentic Hadith]
 
«التَّاجر الأمين الصَّدوق مع الشُّهداء يوم القيامة» رواه الألباني 1783 في صحيح التَّرغيب وقال: حسن صحيح
 
4- Remembering Allah Almighty in the market:
 
It is narrated on the authority of Omar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever enters the market and then says ‘There is no god except Allah, the One, having no partner with Him. Sovereignty belongs to Him and all the praise is due to Him, He brings life and death and He is live does not die; the good is in His Hand and He is over everything omnipotent’ Allah will write to him one million reward, obliterate to him one million sin, and rise him one million rank.” [Reported by At-Tirmidhi 3428 and declared good by Al-Albani]
 
«من دخل السُّوق فقال: لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك وله الحمد يحيي ويميت وهو حيٌّ لا يموت بيده الخير وهو على كل شيءٍ قديرٍ كتب الله له ألف ألف حسنةٍ ومحا عنه ألف ألف سيِّئةٍ ورفع له ألف ألف درجةٍ» رواه التِّرمذي 3428 وحسَّنه الألباني
 
5- Giving charity from the money of trade:
 
It is narrated that Qais ibn Abu Gharaza (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) went to us in the market when we were called ‘the brokers’ and then said, ‘O Merchants, Satan and sins attend the transaction; therefore, you should mingle your transaction with giving charity.’” [Reported by At-Tirmidhi 1208 and declared authentic by Al-Albani]
 
«يا معشر التُّجار! إنَّ الشَّيطان والإثم يحضران البيع فشوبوا بيعكم بالصَّدقة» أخرجه التِّرمذي 1208 وصحَّحه الألباني
 
At the time of Abu Bakr’s caliphate, people faced some rainless time. Then a caravan to “uthman ibn Affan (may Allah be pleased with him) came from Syria. It was one thousand camel loaded with wheat, oil and raisin. When the merchants came to him, he said, ‘How much will you give me as profit?’ Whereupon they said, ‘We will give you two dirhams for each dirham.’ He replied, ‘I have been promised more.’ So, they said, ‘We will give you four.’ He said, ‘I have been promised more.’ Then, they said, ‘We will give you five.’ He said, ‘I have been promised more.’ They exclaimed, ‘There are no merchants in Al-Madina except us; furthermore, none came to you before us. So, who has promised you more?’ Othman said, ‘Allah promised me ten for each dirham. Could you give me more?’ They said, ‘No.’ “Uthman remarked, ‘So, I ask Allah to testify that I gave the loads of these camels as charity (for His sake) for the poor and needy Muslims.’” (Ghirar Al-Khasail Al-Wadiha)
 
6- Going for trade at the beginning of the day
 
It is narrated on the authority of Sakhr Al-Ghamidi (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “O Allah, bless my people in their early mornings.” Also, whenever he sent out a detachment or an army, he sent them at the beginning of the day. Sakhr was a merchant, and he would send off his merchandise at the beginning of the day; and he became rich and had much wealth.” [Reported by Abu Dâwûd and declared authentic by Al-Albani]
 
«اللهمَّ بارك لأمتي في بكورها، وكان إذا بعث سريَّةً أو جيشًا بعثهم من أول النَّهار وكان صخر رجلًا تاجرًا وكان يبعث تجارته من أول النَّهار فأثرى وكثر ماله» أخرجه أبو داود وصححه الألباني
 
 
Merchants’ role in spreading Islam:
 
The Muslim merchant can be one of the best callers for the way of Allah, by adhering to the Muslim teachings in each behavior and deed. Indeed; calling for the way of Allah by example is the most convincing way, and that is why it is said, “One man’s doing among one thousand men is more influential than the saying of one thousand men to one man.” Furthermore; if you considered the Muslim history, you would find countries in south East Asia and central Africa conceived Islam; although no Muslim army or mission were sent to them, Muslim merchants with good manners came to them. The people of these countries, who were idolaters or Christians or people with other creeds, admired the manners of those merchants and their honesty; then, whenever they asked the Muslims about the reason of these manners and honesty, they were told that it is Islam. Hence, they knew the Islam and embraced it in crowds.
 
Among the countries that Islam got in them by trade are Turkistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Maldives, Vietnam, Uganda, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, and others.
 
Actually, this is the strongest response to those who falsely accuse Islam by being spread by the sword.
 
Therefore; it is appropriate for Muslims in general and merchants in specific to practice calling for the way of Allah by holding fast to Islam’s regulations and etiquettes.
 
 
Finally;
 
We ask Allah to make the affairs easy for all Muslims, bless their provision, and grant them lawful blessed provision. Furthermore; we ask Him to make Muslims as far from the evil as the distance that is between the east and west. O Allah, make whatever You declared as lawful sufficient to us prevents us from gaining whatever You declared as prohibited. O Allah, enrich us by Your Bounty in a way makes us do not need anyone but You.
 
Prayers and peace of Allah be upon our prophet Muhammad and his family and companions.
 
 
Al-Muntada
Ministry of Awqaf & Islamic affairs
 
 

 

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