The Prophet's guidance concerning eclipse:
1- When the sun eclipsed, he set out to the mosque rushing, afraid, and dragging his garment.
He advanced and offered two Rak`ahs: in the first he read Al Fatihah (the opening chapter) and a long Surah. He offered Salah loudly, knelt down for a long time, then stood up straight for awhile. When he lifted his head from Ruku` (bowing), he said: «» Then, he started to recite again and knelt down for a long time, then lifted his head from Ruku` (bowing), and prostrated for a long time. Then he did in the second Rak`ah the same as he did in the first, thus each Rak`ah contained two Ruku` (bowing) and two prostrations, then he delivered an eloquent speech.
2- He commanded Muslims to mention Allah, to perform Salah, supplicate, seek forgiveness, give in charity, and to free a slave during eclipse.
The Prophet's guidance concerning invoking Allah for rain:
1- He used to invoke Allah for rain on the pulpit during the Khutbah (religious sermon) and used to invoke Allah for rain in other than Friday. Moreover, he asked Allah for rain while sitting in the mosque when he raised his hands and invoked Allah, may He be Glorified and Exalted.
2- From his supplications concerning the Salah for rain is: «» (Reported by Abu Dawud).
«» (Reported by Abu Dawud).
3- When he saw the fogs and the wind, the traces of sadness would be seen on his face and he would come and go, however when it rained, he would be pleased.
4- When he saw the rain, he would say: «» (Reported by Al Bukhari and Muslim). He used to gather his clothes so that the rain would befall on it. When he was asked about that, he said: « » (Reported by Muslim).
5- When the rain was abundant, people asked him to correct the path of rain, and he did so saying: «» (Reported by Al Bukhari and Muslim).
 Zad Al Ma`ad (1/433).
 Zad Al Ma`ad (1/439).
Dr. Ahmad ibn `Uthman Al Mazid