I would like to know the guidance of the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) regarding Eid prayers.
Praise be to Allah.
The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) used to offer the Eid prayers in the prayer-place (musalla). There is no report of his offering the Eid prayer in his mosque.
Al-Shaafa’i said in al-Umm: It was narrated that the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) used to go out on the two Eids to the prayer-place in Madinah, as did those (caliphs) who came after him, unless there was an excuse such as rain etc. The people of other lands did likewise, apart from the people of Makkah.
He used to wear his most beautiful garments to go out to pray. He had a suit (hullah) which he would wear for Eid and Jumu’ah (Friday prayer). A hullah is a two-piece suit of the same kind of fabric.
He used to eat dates before going out on Eid al-Fitr, and he would eat an odd number of them.
Al-Bukhari (953) narrated that Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) did not go out on the morning of Eid al-Fitr until he had eaten some dates, and he would eat an odd number.”
«كان رسولُ اللهِ صلَّى اللهُ عليهِ وسلَّم لا يَغْدُو يوْمَ الفِطْرِ حتَّى يَأْكُلَ تَمَراتٍ. وقال مُرَجَّأُ بنُ رَجاَءٍ: حَدَّثنِي عُبَيْدُ اللهِ قال: حَدَّثّنِي أنسٌ، عنِ النبيِّ صلَّى اللهُ عليهِ وسلَّم: وَيَأْكُلُهُنَّ وِتْرًا» رواه البخاري
Ibn Qudaamah said: We do not know of any differing opinion concerning the fact that it is mustahabb to eat early on the day of Eid al-Fitr.
The reason for eating before the prayer is so that no one will think that it is essential to fast until the prayer has been offered.
And it was said that this was in order to hasten to obey the command of Allah Who enjoined breaking the fast after He enjoined fasting.
If no dates are available, he should have something else for breakfast, even if it is only water, so that he can fulfill the Sunnah in principle, which is to have something for breakfast before praying on Eid al-Fitr.
With regard to Eid al-Adha, the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) used not to eat anything until he came back from the prayer-place, then he would eat some of the meat of his sacrifice.
It was narrated that he used to do ghusl for both Eids. Ibn al-Qayyim said: Two weak (da’eef) hadiths have been narrated concerning this… but it was proven from Ibn ‘Umar, who was very keen to follow the Sunnah, that he used to do ghusl before going out on the day of Eid.
And he (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) used to go out to the Eid prayer walking, and come back walking.
When the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) reached the prayer-place, he would begin the prayer with no adhan or iqamah, and without saying “Al-salaatu jaami’ah (prayer is about to begin).” The Sunnah is not to do any of these things.
And he did not offer any prayer in the prayer-place before or after the Eid prayer.
The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) would start with the prayer, before the khutbah. He prayed two rak’ahs, with seven consecutive takbeers in the first rak’ah, including takbeerat al-ihraam (the takbeer with which the prayer begins), and a brief pause between each two takbeers. There is no report of him saying any particular dhikr between the takbeers, but it was narrated that Ibn Mas’ood would praise Allah and send blessings upon the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him).
But Ibn ‘Umar, who was always keen to follow the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him), used to raise his hands with each takbeer.
When he had completed the takbeers, he would start to recite. He would recite al-Faatihah then recite Qaf wa’l-Qur’aan il-majeed (Soorah Qaaf 50) in the first rak’ah and Aqtarabat il-saa’ah wa anshaqqa al-qamar (Soorat al-Qamar 54) in the other. Sometimes he recited Sabbih isma rabbika al-A’la (Soorat al-A’laa 87) and Hal ataaka hadith al-ghaashiyzah (Soorat al-Ghaashiyah 88). Both were narrated in sahih reports, but no other soorahs are mentioned in sahih reports. When he had finished reciting he would say takbeer and bow. When he had finished bowing and prostrating and had stood up again, he would say five takbeers. When he had completed the takbeers he would start to recite again. The takbeer was the first thing that he would do in each rak’ah and his recitation was followed by rukoo’ (bowing).
When the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) had finished the prayer, he would move away and stand facing the people, with the people sitting in their rows, and he would address them, preaching and exhorting, with commands and prohibitions. If he wanted to dispatch anyone on a mission he would do so, and if he wanted to enjoin anything he would do that.
There was no minbar on which he would stand, and the minbar of Madinah was not brought out. Rather he would address them standing on the ground. Jaabir said: I attended Eid prayer with the Messenger of Allah (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him). He started with the prayer before the khutbah, He preached to the people and reminded them, then he went over to the women and preached to them and reminded them while leaning on Bilaal’s hand.” [Agreed upon]
«قام النبيُّ صلَّى اللهُ عليهِ وسلَّمَ يومَ الفطرِ فصلَّى، فبدأَ بالصلاةِ، ثم خطبَ، فلمَّا فرغَ نزلَ فأَتَى النساءَ، فذَكَّرَهُنَّ، وهو يتوكَّأُ على يدِ بلالٍ...» متفق عليه
Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) used to go out on the day of al-Fitr and al-Adha to the prayer place. He would start with the prayer, then he would go and stand facing the people, with the people sitting in their rows… This hadith was narrated by Muslim.
Ibn al-Qayyim said: People differed as to how the khutbah on Eid and on the occasion of prayers for rain (istisqa’) should begin. It was said that they should begin with takbeer and it was said that the khutbah of istisqa’ should begin with prayers for forgiveness, and it was said that they should begin with praise. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: this is the correct view. The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) used to begin all his khutbahs with praise of Allah.
The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) granted a concession allowing those who attended the Eid prayers either to sit and listen to the khutbah, or to leave.
The Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) used to vary his route on the day of Eid. He would go by one route and come back by another.
Al-Bukhari narrated (986) that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah said: On the day of Eid, the Prophet (prayers and peace of Allah be upon him) would vary his route.
«كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا كان يوم عيد، خالف الطريق» رواه البخاري
Allah knows best.