Transliteration: laAAallakum tattaqoona
Taqwaa is among the highest moral qualities that a Muslim can attain. It is produced by placing a shield between one's self and Allah's wrath as the root meaning of the word implies (i.e. Taqwaa comes from the verb waqaa, which means ‘to defend’). This is achieved by being conscious of Allah and all His commandments at all times, which means avoiding the Haram (prohibited) as well as the Makrooh (undesirable) and even some of the Halal (permissible) wherever doubt arises.
It has also been noted by medical experts that fasting improves the physical health in numerous ways. For example, during the fast the body uses up stored cholesterol (fats) which are often deposited in the blood system, as well as in other fatty areas of the body. Thus, it helps to keep the body firm and minimizes the danger of heart attacks.
Fasting in Cultural Islam
Where fasting has become a ritual, the month of Ramadan becomes a time of celebration instead of religious contemplation and abstinence. Ramadan nights are nights of party and enjoyment which continue until the dawn in some countries. There, the night becomes the day and the day becomes the night. In most places, Suhur (the light meal which is supposed to be taken prior the dawn) becomes a major three-course meal. Consequently, few experience real hunger during the fast. And at the time of breaking the fast, another three-course meal is taken, followed by a sampling of all kinds of sweets imaginable. As a result, many Muslims complain about gaining weight during Ramadan.
The characters which Sawm builds are:
Since fasting is basically abstinence from food, drink and sexual relations, it trains the believers in self-control. Consequently, the actual test of the effects of fasting occurs at the time of breaking the fast. When food is traditionally spread out in large delicious quantities and people are tempted to gorge themselves, the believer is required to control his or her appetite and have a light meal and drink prior to the sunset prayers. It was the practice of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to break his fast with three dates and water, and after giving the sunset prayers eat a moderate meal.
Fasting also means spiritual abstinence. It is required that the individual give up not only food, drink and sexual relations, but also that he or she also restrain from all forms of lying, backbiting, slander, etc. This is confirmed by the Prophet's (peace be upon him) statement,
“Allah has no need for the hunger and the thirst of the person who does not restrain from telling lies and acting on them even while observing the fast.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud] 1
«من لم يدع قول الزور والعمل به ، فليس لله حاجة في أن يدع طعامه وشرابه»
رواه البخاري وأبو داود
He also said, “When one of you is fasting, he should abstain from indecent acts and unnecessary talk, and if someone begins an obscene conversation or tries to pick an argument, he should simply tell him, ‘I am fasting.’ ” [Narrated by Muslim, Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud] 2
«إذا كان يوم صوم أحدكم فلا يرفث ولا يصخب ، فإن سابه أحد أو قاتله فليقل: إني امرؤ صائم»
رواه البخاري ومسلم وأبو داود
So, if one observes the fast according to the above principles, it should improve his moral character, making him more truthful and more careful about what he says and does.
Because the believer is required to restrain himself or herself at the time of breaking the fast, a sense of moderation in eating is developed. This is in keeping with the general recommendations given by the Prophet (peace be upon him) regarding eating. Ibn Umar Abu Hurayrah and Abu Musa both quoted Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) as saying, “The believer eats in one stomach 3 and the disbeliever eats [as if] in seven.” [Narrated by Muslim] 4
«المؤمن يأكل في معي واحد، والكافر يأكل في سبعة أمعاء»
Jaabir reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Food for one person is sufficient for two, and food for two can suffice four.” [Narrated by Muslim] 5
«طعام الواحد يكفي الاثنين، وطعام الاثنين يكفي الأربعة»
Ibn Umar related that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) forbade anyone from taking two dates at a time without the consent of his eating companions. [Narrated by Muslim]
«لا تقارنوا فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن الإقران إلا أن يستأذن الرجل أخاه»
Fasting gives the individual a real taste of hunger and thirst, which helps him to realize the experience of the poor. This experience should instill a desire to want to help those who are less fortunate by sharing food and wealth with them. This quality is emphasized Eid al-Fitr (festival of fast breaking) in which all Muslims are obliged to give the needy food to celebrate on that day.
1. Reported by Abu Hurairah and collected by al-Bukhari (Sahih al-Bukhari (Arabic-English), vol.3, pp.70-1, no.127) and Abu Dawud (Sunan Abu Dawud (English Trans.), vol.2, p.648, no.2355)
2. Reported by Abu Hurairah and collected by al-Bukhari (Sahih al-Bukhari (Arabic-English), vol.3, p.71, 128), Muslim (Sahih Muslim (English Trans.), vol.2, p.558, no.2563) and Abu Dawud (Sunan Abu Dawud (English Trans.), vol.2, p.648, no.2356)
3. The Arabic term used is mi‘an which literally means "intestine"
4. Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 1137, no. 5113.
5. Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 1136, no. 5111.7. Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 1128, no. 5077