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‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab, Al-Fârûq

 

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In this tour we will be in the company of the second man in Islam, after the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, and after Abu Bakr As-Siddîq. This is the man whose name is paired with justice and truth, strength and courage, and asceticism and godliness. His name is linked to piety, observing and fearing Allah, and crying out of fearing Him. This man is known for his intuition and intelligence, his accuracy of vision and insight, of being conscientious, and of conquering the desires of the self.

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‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab, Al-Fârûq (the one who distinguishes truth from falsehood)
 
In the Name of Allâh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
 
All the praises and thanks be to Allâh, the Lord of the ‘Aalamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists). Prayers and peace of Allah be upon the seal of the Prophets and Messengers; our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his family and companions.
 
In this tour we will be in the company of the second man in Islam, after the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, and after Abu Bakr As-Siddîq. This is the man whose name is paired with justice and truth, strength and courage, and asceticism and godliness. His name is linked to piety, observing and fearing Allah, and crying out of fearing Him. This man is known for his intuition and intelligence, his accuracy of vision and insight, of being conscientious, and of conquering the desires of the self.
 
It is Al-Fârûk ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him.
 
He is from Quraish, the tribe of Banu Adi. The Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has nicknamed him Abu Hafs.
 

Ibn al-Jawzi said, “you should know that ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, is one of those for whom the good has preceded from Allah. He was honored both in Islam and in the pre-Islamic period.” (The Enlightenment 1/415)

 
Ibn Kathir said, “He was modest for Allah, living hard and his food was coarse. He was adamant when it comes to the Self of Allah. He used to patch his garment with tanned skin, and to hold the skin bottle to his shoulders despite the greatness of his prestige. He used to ride the donkey naked (with no saddle) and the nose robe of his camel was made of fiber. He laughed a little and used not to joke with anybody. The engravings on his ring said, “O ‘Umar, death is enough for a preacher...”
 
 
His embracing of Islam, May Allah be pleased with him
 
‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, embraced Islam in the sixth year of the revelation. He was twenty seven years old. He has witnessed the battles of Badr, Uhud and all the battles which the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, went through. He participated in many brigades and was the commander of some of them. He was among those who stood firm with the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, on the day of Uhud. He is one of the foremost to embrace Islam and one of the ten men who were given the glad tidings that they are to enter Paradise. He is one of the guided Caliphs and one of the in-laws of the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him. He is also one of the senior scholars and ascetics of the companions. His conversion to Islam, may Allah be pleased with him, is considered the beginning of a new phase of the call, therefore, Ibn Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “We are still strong since ‘Umar’s embracing of Islam.”
 
 
His migration, may Allah be pleased with him
 
On the day of his migration, ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, was mighty. Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I do not know of anyone who did not emigrate in secret except for Umar ibn al-Khattab; because when he wanted to emigrate he strapped on his sword, put his bow over his shoulder, carried his arrows in his hand, and came to the Ka’bah where the nobles of Quraish were in its courtyard. He strongly performed seven circumambulations, and then prayed two raka’ats at the Station (of Ibrahim). Then he approached their circle one step at a time and said, ‘May faces be deformed. Whoever wishes to bereave his mother, orphan his children and widow his wife then let him meet me behind this valley.’” Ali said, “Not one of them followed him except some weak people whom he guided and then he went his way.”
 
 
His virtues and merits, May Allah be pleased with him
 
A man from the dwellers of Paradise
 
Abu Huraira, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “[While l was asleep I saw as a dream that] I entered Paradise where I have seen a house or a palace. I said, ‘For whom is it meant?’ They said, ‘It is meant for ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab.’ I wanted to enter it but I remembered your jealousy [so I turned back and went away]. ‘Umar wept and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Could I, at all, feel any jealousy about you?’” [Reported by Muslim]
 
«دخلت الجنَّة فرأيت فيها دارًا أو قصرًا فقلت: لمن هذا؟ فقالوا: لعمر بن الخطاب، فأردت أن أدخل، فذكرت غيرتك فبكى عمر وقال: أي رسول الله! أو عليك يغار؟» متفق عليه واللفظ لمسلم
 
 
The knowledge of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, reported that the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “While I was asleep I saw (in a dream) a cup containing milk being presented to me. I drank out of that until I perceived freshness being reflected through my nails. Then I presented the leftover to ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab.” They said, “O Messenger of Allah! How do you interpret it? He said, ‘This implies (religious) knowledge.” [Agreed upon and the wording is by Muslim 2391]
 
«بينا أنا نائم، إذ رأيت قدحًا أتيت به، فيه لبن، فشربت منه حتَّى إنِّي لأرى الرّي يجري في أظفاري ثمَّ أعطيت فضلي عمر بن الخطاب، قالوا: فما أولت ذلك؟ يا رسول الله! قال: العلم» متفق عليه واللفظ لمسلم
 
 
The religion and integrity of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Saad ibn Abu Waqas, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “By Him in Whose Hands my life is, whenever Satan sees you taking a path, he follows a path other than yours.” [Agreed upon]
 
«والَّذي نفسي بيده، ما لقيك الشَّيطان قط سالكًا فجًّا إلا سلك فجًّا غير فجّك» متفق عليه
 
Abu Sa’îd Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that he heard the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, saying, “While I was sleeping I saw (in a dream) some people wearing shirts of which some were reaching up to the breasts only while others were even shorter than that. ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab was shown wearing a shirt that he was dragging.” They asked, “O Messenger of Allah! How do you interpret it?” He said, “This implies religion.” [Reported by al-Bukhari and Muslim]
 
 «بينما أنا نائمٌ، رأيت النَّاس يعرضون علي وعليهم قمص، منها ما يبلغ الثَّدي، ومنها ما يبلغ دون ذلك، ومرَّ عليَّ عمر بن الخطاب وعليه قميص يجره، قالوا: ما أولت يا رسول الله؟ قال: الدِّين»رواه البخاري ومسلم
 
 
The intuition of ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Abu Huraira, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “Among the nations before you there used to be people who were inspired (though they were not prophets). And if there is any of such a person amongst my followers, it is ‘Umar.” [Reported by al-Bukhari 3689]
 
«لقد كان فيما كان قبلكم من الأمم ناس محدثون، فإن يك في أمَّتي أحدٌ فإنَّه عمر» رواه البخاري
 
 
His status, may Allah be pleased with him
 
‘Uqba ibn ‘Amir, may Allah be pleased with him, said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, saying, “If there were a Prophet (to be sent) after me, it would be ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab.” [Authenticated by al-Albani 5992, in Mishkat al-Masâbîh (the Niche of the Lamps)]
 
«لو كان من بعدي نبي؛ لكان عمر بن الخطاب» صححه الألباني فى مشكاة المصابيح
 
 
His truthfulness, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, reported that the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “Allah has put truthfulness on the tongue and heart of ‘Umar.” [Authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«إنَّ الله جعل الحقَّ على لسان عمر وقلبه» صححه الألباني
 
 
His severe following (to the prophet), may Allah be pleased with him
 
Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, reported that the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “The most compassionate person from my nation upon my nation is Abu Bakr and the most sever in the religion of Allah is ‘Umar” [Narrated by Ibn Majah 125 and authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«أرحم أمَّتي بأمَّتي أبو بكر وأشدُّهم في دين الله عمر» رواه ابن ماجه وصححه الألباني
 
Huzaifa narrated that the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, has said, “Follow the people coming after me; Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.” [Reported by at-Tirmidhi 3662, and Authenticated by al-Albani]
 
«اقتدوا باللذين من بعدي أبي بكر وعمر» رواه الترمذي وصححه الألباني
 
 
His death as a martyr, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Anas ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, ascended the mountain of Uhud and he was accompanied by Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman. The mountain shook beneath them. The Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, hit it with his foot and said, “O Uhud! Be firm, for on you there is none but a Prophet, a Siddîq and two martyrs.” [Reported by al-Bukhari 3675] The two martyrs are ‘Umar and ‘Uthman, may Allah be pleased with them.
 
«صعد النَّبيُّ -صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم- أحدًا ومعه أبو بكر وعمر وعثمان، فرجف بهم، فضربه برجله وقال: اثبت أحد فإنَّما عليك نبيٌّ وصديقٌ وشهيدان» رواه البخاري
 
 
The praise of the companions, the family of the Prophet and the righteous ancestors on him, may Allah be pleased with him
 
- Abu Bakr As-Siddîq, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “there is no man on earth whom I love more than ‘Umar.”
 
- Abu Bakr was asked on his death bed, “What will you say to your Lord after that you have appointed ‘Umar as your successor?” He answered, “I will tell him that I have appointed the best man among your men.”
 
- Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “when the righteous are mentioned, then ‘Umar is certainly mentioned. We did not consider it impossible that calmness would talk with the tongue of ‘Umar.”
 
- Ibn Mas’ûd, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “‘Umar is the most knowing amongst us about the Book of Allah. He is also the most understanding amongst us of the religion of Allah.”
 
- Ja’far As-Sadiq, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I renounce whoever mentions Abu Bakr and ‘Umar with anything than good.”
 
- Shurayk said, “This who considers Ali ibn Abu Talib superior to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar has no good in him.”
 
- Abu Usama said, “Do you know who Abu Bakr and ‘Umar are? They are the father and mother of Islam.”
 
 
The things he was the pioneer in doing, may Allah be pleased with him
 
- He was the first to be called the Emir (prince) of the believers.
 
- He was the first to decree the Hijri calendar.
 
- He was the first to assemble people to pray the tarawîh prayers (Ramadan night optional prayers) in congregation.
 
- He was the first to patrol at night to keep night watch to find out the people of suspicion in Medina.
 
- He was the first to start military expansions, establish provinces, and recruit soldiers. He was the first to set up the system of Revenue. He was also the first to establish administration departments. He allocated gifts and appointed judges.
 
- He was the first to give eighty lashes as punishment for drinking alcoholic drinks.
 
- He was the first to take a cane to discipline people with that it was said after his death, “the cane of ‘Umar is more feared than your swords.”
 
- He was the first to put lamps in the mosques in Ramadan that Ali ibn Abu Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “May Allah lighten the grave of ‘Umar as he has lightened our mosques.”
 
- Ibn Sa’d said, “‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, dâr ad-daqîq (the provision department) where he put flour, dates, raisins, and all that is needed to help the needy. He set up, in the road between Mecca and Medina, what may help people taking it.”
 
- He increased the space of the Prophet’s Mosque, and expanded and graveled it.
 
- He ousted the Jews out of Hejaz to the Levant (Syria and Lebanon), and directed the people of Najran to go to Kufa (the History of the Caliphs p. 128).
Islamic conquests expanded in his era; Egypt, Damascus, Jordan, Jerusalem, Tripoli and parts of Iraq and Persia were conquered.
 
 
The praise of Ali, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated, “When (the dead body of) ‘Umar was put on his deathbed, people gathered around him and invoked Allah and prayed for him before the body was taken away, and I was amongst them. Suddenly I felt somebody taking hold of my shoulder and found out that he was ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib. ‘Ali invoked Allah’s Mercy for ‘Umar and said, “O ‘Umar! You have not left behind you a person whose deeds I like to imitate and meet Allah with more than I like your deeds. By Allah! I always thought that Allah would keep you with your two companions, for very often I used to hear the Prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, saying, ‘I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar went (somewhere); I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar entered (somewhere); and I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar went out.”’ [Reported by al-Bukhari 3685]
 
«ذهبتُ أنا وأبو بكر وعمر، ودخلتُ أنا وأبو بكر وعمر، وخرجتُ أنا وأبو بكر وعمر» رواه البخاري
 
 
It further demonstrates the love of Ali ibn Abu Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, for ‘Umar and venerating him that he gave his daughter, Umm Kulthum, in marriage to him. She is the daughter of Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him. ‘Umar asked her hand in marriage from Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, and he accepted. ‘Umar gave her forty thousand as a dowry and she bore him Zaid and Ruqayyah, may Allah be pleased with them all.
 
 
His asceticism and justice, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Al-Jawzi said, “When he was appointed the caliph, he took it seriously. He suppressed the desires of himself, and carried responsibilities in Allah above his endurance.”
 
Alert he is, since determinations has since risen
To loftiness, he has not become dull
And almost from insight he can see in his day
The consequences of tomorrow
 
He rejected this worldly life, and threw out weights for the race (to paradise).
He used to preach while there were twelve patches in his lower garment. He restrained his hand from money that he exposed his family to abject poverty.
 
In the year of the great famine, he ate oil till his belly rumbled. He said, “You can rumble or you cannot. By Allah, you will not taste fat till the children of the Muslims eat their full.”
 
O you who see ‘Umar wearing his garment
Eating oil and inhabiting a hut.
Chosroes in his throne is shaking
And the kings of the Rome are afraid of him.
 
 
His fear of Allah, may Allah be pleased with him
 
There were two black lines on his face, may Allah be pleased with him, out of his crying.
 
He used to recite his allocated verse of the Quran at night and starts to cry till he falls; stays at home that people visit him for being ill.
He said during his death, “Woe to ‘Umar if Allah does not forgive him.”
 
Anas ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “One day I went out with ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab till he entered into a place. I heard him saying, and there was a wall between me and him, “Umar Ibn al-Khattab! The Prince of the Believers! O Allah! Well-done O family of al-Khattab. You must fear Allah or that He will certainly torture you.”
 
 
His compassion for his subjects, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Al-Awza’i said, ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, came out in the depths of the night, and was sighted by Talha, may Allah be pleased with him. ‘Umar went and entered a house and then entered another one. The following morning, Talha went to this house, where he saw a blind crippled old lady. He said to her, ‘Why does this man come to you?’ She said, ‘he has been taken care of me since such and such. He comes and helps me with what is good for me and takes away the harm.’ Talha said, ‘O Talha, may your mother be bereft, are you following the slips of ‘Umar?’” (The Virtues of ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab, by Ibn al-Jawzi, p. 68)
 
 
His worship and diligence, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Sa’id ibn al-Musayyib said, “Umar loved to pray in the middle of the night.”
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said “Umar, may Allah be pleased be upon him, did not die until he became black from fasting.”
 
In the Morning Prayer, he used to read Surat Yûsuf, people heard his crying from the last row while he was reading, {“I only complain of my grief and sorrow to Allâh,} [Surat Yûsuf 12:86]
 
{إِنَّمَا أَشْكُو بَثِّي وَحُزْنِي إِلَى اللَّـهِ} يوسف: 86
 
Transliteration: innama ashkoo baththee wahuznee ila Allahi 
 
(The virtues of the Prince of the believers; ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab 168-169)
 
 
He died a martyr, may Allah be pleased with him
 
Ibn Kathir said, “When ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, finished performing hajj (pilgrimage) in the year twenty two of the Hijri calendar, and the Mothers of the Believers were with him, he supplicated Allah, Glorified and Exalted, and complained to Him that he has become old. He also supplicated Him that he has become weak and the subjects have increased; and that he was afraid of being negligent. He asked Allah to take him and bestow martyrdom upon him in the city of the Prophet (Medina), prayers and peace of Allah be upon him. It was established in the authentic books of Hadith that he used to say, “O Allah! I ask You a martyrdom in your cause, and a death in the city of Your Messenger.” Allah has responded to this supplication and gathered for him the two things. He was martyred in the city of the Prophet. This is too dear but Allah is the Most Courteous and Kind unto whom He wills, Glorified and Exalted He is.
 
On the morning of Wednesday in Dhul-Hijja, he was stabbed while standing for prayer, in the mihrab (prayer niche). He was stabbed by Abu Lulu Fairuz the Magi. He hit him with a two edged dagger. He hit him three strokes, or six; one of them under the navel, that he fell to the ground. The infidel came back with his dagger; he did not pass by anyone but that he hit him. He hit thirteen men, of whom six died. Abdullah ibn Awf threw over him a garment and he committed suicide. May Allah curse him.
 
‘Umar was carried to his home, bleeding from his wound, before sunrise. He started to wake up and then faint, and then they reminded him of prayer and he says, “Yes, there is no luck in Islam for those who left it.” (The Beginning and the End 7/137-138)
 
When death became near, he fainted and his head was on the ground. His son, Abdullah put his head in his lap. When he woke up he said to his son, “Put my head on the ground,” which he did. ‘Umar wiped his face with dust and said, “Woe to ‘Umar, Woe to ‘Umar. Woe to ‘Umar’s mother if Allah does not forgive ‘Umar.”
 
When he died Sa’id ibn Zaid wept; he was asked, “What makes you cry?” He answered, “I cry over Islam. By the death of ‘Umar Islam has been cut. This cut will not be patched till the Day of Judgment.” (the Layers of Ibn Sa’d, 3/284).
 
May Allah be pleased with ‘Umar ibn Al-khattab and may He please him. O Allah, we take You as our witness that we love ‘Umar ibn Al-khattab and all the Guided Caliphs and the companions of Your prophet. Prayers, peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his family and companions.
 
 
Prepared by the scientific section in Madar Al-Watan
 

 

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