In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
And peace upon the seal of Prophets’ and Messengers, and praise and thanks be to Allah, Lord of the Realms … and to our Prophet Muhammad, all His family and companions.
The puberty period is a very delicate stage in a girl’s life, because any girl who reaches this stage is ordained to pray, fast and perform all other legitimate worships.
Many girls neither know the meaning of puberty nor its signs, so they do not know that they are obliged to adhere to the precept of their religion as soon as they reach this period. Consequently, they do not pray, fast or wear the veil, and they are unaware, that by their non-adherence, they are disobedient to their Lord, violating His sanctity because they were careless to seek knowledge for what they are unaware of.
Therefore, our kind scholars were keen to clarify the conditions, signs and rulings of puberty for girls and everything that concerns performing and making up of their worships, so that the Muslim girls are completely aware of the precept of their religion…
In this context we have gathered some fatwa (religious opinions concerning Islamic law), and legitimate rulings related to the girls’ fast, Asking Allah Almighty to assist them in comprehending the rules of their fasting and making up through this message. May Allah guide us..
As soon as she menstruates, fasting is obligatory:
Question: I started having menstruation when I was fourteen years old so I fasted in Ramadan. And I broke my fast during the menstruation period but did not fast again after I was purified from it due to my shyness, and because my father ordered my mother not to wake me up to have my Suhur (meal before dawn in Ramadan) claiming that I was still too young. So, what shall I do, make up, or give atonement?
Sheikh Ibn ‘Uthaimeen, may Allah have mercy on him, replied: Whenever the girl menstruates, then she has reached the age of puberty. Consequently, she is obliged to perform all what a grown up woman does, even if she menstruates at ten years, eleven or thirteen even then she is considered pubescent.
Some people think that the girl does not reach the puberty age except when she is fifteen years old, which is wrong, as the puberty’s signs are as follows:
1- Reaching the age of fifteen.
2- Menstruation even if she is younger than fifteen years, so all acts of worship is obligatory for her to do.
3- Growth of pubic hair
4- Nocturnal emission of semen (wet dream), either when she is awake or during her sleep
Consequently: You have to make up the days you did not fast after you menstruated and if you are confused about the number of those days you have to estimate these days and make up what you think you missed [Sheikh Ibn ‘Uthaimeen, may Allah have mercy on him]
Question: When is a girl obliged to fast?
Any girl should fast whenever she reaches the age of discretion, and she reaches it either when she is fifteen years old, appearance of pubic hair, emission of semen, when she gets her menstruation or she becomes pregnant. Whenever any of these signs occur, she is obliged to fast even if she is only ten years old. Many girls menstruate when they are ten or eleven years old and their parents think that they are still too young, so they do not oblige them to fast, which is wrong. Consequently, as soon as the girl menstruates, all precepts of religion are applied on her like an adult. And Allah knows best. [Sheikh Ibn Jibreen].
There is no sin on the ignorant girl:
Question: I menstruated when I was fourteen years old but did not fast Ramadan that year due to my parents’ ignorance, and mine too, secondly our distance from the people of knowledge, not knowing the rules. I began fasting when I was fifteen years old. Kindly provide a ruling for the previous.
Answer: The inquirer that mentioned she had menstruation for the first time at the age of fourteen and not knowing that this is a sign of puberty out of ignorance. There is no harm on ignorant people. However, as soon as she knows that she was obliged to fast, then she has to make up the months she had missed fasting after she got her menstruation. The following four issues verify the puberty of a girl:
1- To be fifteen years old
2- Pubic hair appears in her pubic area
3- Emission of semen
4- To get her menstruation
So if any of the above signs appear, then the girl has reached the age of puberty and has to perform all acts of worships as an adult [Sheikh Al Fawzan]
You should recall the intention of Fast in order to observe the Obligatory Fast (religious duty), before the dawn, as the intention is Obligatory (religious duty) to validate your fasting and to differentiate between the obligatory and supererogatory Fast. The intention, in all acts of worship, originates from the heart and should not be articulated, but it is sufficient for anyone to have the intention (in his heart) to observe the obligatory fast.
Ruling of fasting during menstruation:
Question: What would be the ruling of fasting for the woman during her menstruation period or during the postpartum period, and are they allowed to delay their making up till after the following Ramadan?
Answer: Women experiencing menstruation or postpartum period are not allowed to fast or pray, and have to make up the days they have missed fasting, but, on the other hand, they do not have to make up their prayer. As Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, was asked: Does a woman experiencing menstruation make up her fast and prayer? She replied: “We used to experience menstruation while we were with the Messenger of Allah, so we were ordered to make up our fast and not to make up our prayer” [Reported by Abu Dawud].
The scholars of Islam, may Allah have mercy on them, unanimously agreed upon what Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, said regarding making up the fast, but not the prayer by women experiencing menstruation and postpartum period. This was ordered out of mercy from Allah Almighty on those women, as the prayers are performed five times every day and it will be tiresome for them to make up all their missed prayers, but fasting is ordained one time every year during the month of Ramadan, which is not hard for them to make up.
Whoever delays her fast till after the next Ramadan without a valid excuse, she has to make up, repent to Allah and to feed one needy person for every day she has missed fasting.
Likewise, if the sick person and the one who is traveling delay their making up till after the next Ramadan without a valid excuse, they have to make up, repent to Allah and feed one needy person in for every day they missed. But if their illness or travels last till after the next Ramadan, then they have just to make up after their cure from their illness and settling down from their travels, without feeding a needy person. [Sheikh Ibn Baz, may Allah have mercy on him]
A girl fasted during her menstruation and did not know that this is wrong:
Question: A girl had her first menstruation when she was thirteen years old. She fasted and prayed for so many years during her menstruation and did not make up the days she had her menstruation, as she did not know that it is forbidden to fast during the menstruation period nor that she had to make up after Ramadan. Does she have to make up these days now? Please advice, May Allah reward you with good.
First: Any woman should neither fast nor pray during her menstruation period. What this woman did is wrong. She has to repent to Allah and ask for forgiveness. In this case she is not excused for her ignorance She is not excused for her ignorance in this matter, as she had to seek knowledge about this.
Second: She has to make up all the days of her menstruation during Ramadan, whether it was one Ramadan or several, as her fasting in Ramadan, during her menstruation, does not substitute her making up. So she has to feed one poor person in exchange of every day of her menstruation – equal to half a Sa’ (Sa’ is a weighing measure equals 2.6kgs) of the common food of the country she lives in - along with her making up [Sheikh Ibn Baz]
Nullifiers of fast:
1- Deliberate eating and drinking
2- Emission of semen while awake
3- Taking injections for the purpose of nutrition
4- Menstruation or postpartum bleeding
5- Taking blood from a fasting person through cupping, phlebotomy or for the purpose of donation
6- Receiving blood transfusion
7- Deliberate vomiting
She did not fast due to her shyness!
Question: A girl reached the age of puberty and did not fast for two consecutive Ramadan months out of her shyness, what would be the ruling in this matter?
Answer: She has to make up the months she did not fast after her reaching the age of puberty, even if these months were not successive, and has to feed one poor person in exchange of every day she did not fast. Allah Almighty says: “And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] - a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]” [Al Baqarah 2:184]
Transliteration: waAAala allatheena yuteeqoonahu fidyatun taAAamu miskeenin
This food equals half Sa’ for every day, as she was obliged to fast Ramadan on its due time because one of the signs of reaching the age of puberty is having her menstruation. Even the younger girl whenever she menstruates, she is obliged to fast no matter how young she is. [Sheikh Ibn Jibreen]
She fasts while having her menstruation out of her shyness from her parents
Question: Does the girl sin when she fasts during her menstruation out of her shyness from her parents?
Answer: Naturally, she has done wrong, and there is nothing to be shy of. Menstruating is inevitable on all females, and the girl during her menstruation is forbidden to fast and pray. So, that girl who fasted due to her shyness from her parents has to make up the days she fasted during her menstruation and never fasts during her menstruation again, and Allah knows best [Sheikh Ibn Jibreen]
Fasting gradually after reaching puberty age:
Question: A girl has menstruated for the first time. So when Ramadan arrived she only fasted a few days till Duha (forenoon) as she was unable to bear hunger. The next Ramadan she fasted a couple of days. And the next one fasted eleven days. Please advise on the ruling for this situation.
Answer: What she did is impermissible and prohibited. As whenever a girl reaches the age of puberty, all obligations applicable to adults also applies to her. Therefore, this girl, as long as she got her menstruation, has to make up all the days she missed fasting in all the months of Ramadan.
Unfortunately, many questions frequently asked about this specific issue. This is due to people’s ignorance and their negligence in understanding the percepts of their religion. It is obligatory on every Muslim – whether male or female – to understand their religion’s teachings, as said: “If Allah means good to a person, He makes him comprehend the religion” [Agreed upon].
What is permissible for the fasting female?
It is permissible for the fasting female to swallow her saliva, but the thick phlegm should be spat out. Using siwak, wearing perfume, and using toothpaste, on the condition that none reaches the stomach, are also permissible. It is also permitted for her to use eye and ear drops, oral spray for the ones who have asthma, and using kohl and henna, taking some blood for analysis, taking enema, tasting food when necessary by putting it on the tip of the tongue while taking care that none of it is swallowed.
If the menstruated woman is purified during the day in Ramadan
Question: What would be the ruling if the menstruated woman purifies during the day in Ramadan?
Answer: It is authentic that the scholars said: She has to fast the remaining of the day because the legitimate excuse had passed and she has to make up this day too. They referred to the facts that if Ramadan is confirmed during the day then Muslims have to fast the rest of the day and make up that elapsing day too according to the majority of the people of knowledge. Likewise is the traveling person who settles down in the middle of the day, so he has to fast because the travel excuse had passed and she has to make up that day too. [Sheikh Ibn Baz, may Allah has mercy him]
Ruling for the person who does not observe the fast of Ramadan without an excuse
Question: What would be the ruling for whoever does not observe the fast of Ramadan and does not deny its state of obligation? Is the person who drops fasting more than once, out of negligence, considered out of the folds of Islam?
Answer: Whoever does not fast in Ramadan without a valid excuse has committed a major sin. Most of the scholars agreed that he has not left the folds of Islam, but he has to repent to Allah All Mighty and make up the days he did not fast.
There is a lot of evidence stating that deserting to fast in Ramadan is not considered a Major act of infidelity if the person does not deny its state of obligation. Nevertheless, the one who does not fast out of negligence and laziness, has to feed a poor person if he delays the making up, without a valid excuse, until after the following Ramadan [Sheikh Ibn Baz, may Allah have mercy on his soul]
Sunan (words, actions, practices taken from Prophet Muhammed) of fasting:
1- Hasten to break the fast as soon as sunset is ascertained
2- Supplicating when breaking the fast
3- To break the fast on ripe or dried dates or water
4- Delaying Suhur (meal taken before dawn) and persisting on it
5- Holding our tongues from ill speech and our senses from forbidden matters
6- Feeding fasting people
7- Being generous and increase charity
8- Remembrance of Allah and reciting Qur’an a lot
9- Maintaining the night prayer
10- Seeking Laylatu Al Qadr (night of Decree) and liven up its night worshiping Allah
11- Performing Umrah (small pilgrimage) in Ramadan
She deliberately broke her fast when she was making up
Question: I was making up one of my missed fasting days, and after the noon prayer, I felt hungry so I ate and drank on purpose not out of ignorance neither did I forget. What would be the ruling of my action?
Answer: You were obliged to continue your fast and not to break it if it was Obligatory (religious duty), for example making up days Of Ramadan and fasting to fulfill an oath. Therefore you have to repent; whoever sincerely repents Allah will accept his repent. May Allah be our Guide. [Sheikh Ibn Baz, may Allah have mercy on his soul]
The fasting person watches television
Question: Does watching television and video in Ramadan diminish the fast?
Answer: If what the fasting person watches or listens to is permissible, then it does not diminish the fast. On the other hand, it is not recommended for the fasting one to waste his time except in whatever gets him closer to Allah such as praying, reciting Qur’an, supplication, etc.
But watching or listening to what Allah has forbid us to watch and listen naturally lessens the fast and affects it. As piety is the perception of fasting, as Allah Almighty says: “O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (the pious)” [Al Baqarah 2:183]
So Allah explains that ordaining fast is considered piety for His slaves, and the Prophet,said: "Whoever does not desert false statement and acting accordingly, Allah is in no need for him to leave his food and drink" [Reported by Al Bukhari]
Therefore, every sin done by the one who fasts shall negatively affect his fast.
Some examples thereof are: When fasting people abstain from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse but they sin. Therefore, we would find one having his Suhur and does not observe Fajr prayer (Dawn Prayer), oversleeps and does not wake up except after sunrise. Others do not perform Al-‘Asr prayer (the third of the five daily prayers) on its due time because they sleep and do not wake up except shortly before Maghrib (sunset), so they hasten in performing the ‘Asr prayer.
Some people lie and backbite, cheat and deceive others while selling and do other forbade matters during their fast. There is no doubt that the reward of these people’s fast will be decreased, maybe to the extent that their reward for fasting and the penalty of their sin will be equal, and consequently they will be deprived from the reward of their fast.
My advice to all Muslims is to shield their fast from every speech and deed that Allah has forbidden, and to maintain this month for worshiping Allah Almighty. This is how they would be acquainted to deserting forbidden matters and performing their obligations towards Allah. May Allah be our Guide. [Sheikh Ibn ‘Uthaimeen, may Allah have mercy on him]
Not fasting due to attending examination:
Question: I did not fast for six days in Ramadan on purpose, due to my exams which started in Ramadan. The syllabus is difficult and without me breaking the fast, I would have not been able to study. What is the ruling in my case – may Allah reward you with good?
Answer: You have to repent and make up the days you broke your fast for. Allah forgives who repents sincerely ..
The sincere repentance which Allah accepts and consequently vanquishes the sins with, is by glorifying Him out of fear from His punishment, out of our remorse from the sins we did and our sincere determination not to sin again. If the sin done was oppressing anyone of Allah’s slaves, then the sincere repentance shall be the waiver (of the wrongdoer’s sin) of his rights (the rights of the oppressed person).
Allah Almighty says: “And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed.” [An-Nur 24:31]
Transliteration: watooboo ila Allahi jameeAAan ayyuha almuminoona laAAallakum tuflihoona
And Almighty also says: “O you who have believed, repent to Allah with sincere repentance.” [At-Tahrim 66:8]
Transliteration: Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo tooboo ila Allahi tawbatan nasoohan
And the Prophet said: “Repentance nullifies the past (sins)” [Declared authentic by Ibn Al-Baz]
And peace upon Him said: “Whoever does an injustice deed to his brother related to money or honor, then he should seek absolution from it today before he pays for it in retribution on the day when there is neither a dinar nor dirham (judgment day). So if he has performed any righteous deed, it will be deducted equally to the unjust performed, and if he does not have any, then Allah takes from his opponent’s sins and adds it to his” [Authenticated by Al-Albani]
May Allah be our Guide. [Sheikh Ibn Baz, may Allah have mercy on his soul]
Translated by Wathakker.info website